Gene Larson's Shop Notes

 

 

CONSTRUCTING AND OPERATING A ROPEWALK
FOR SHIP MODEL BUILDERS

 

By: Eugene Larson
Former NRG Chairman of the Board of Directors
Copyright (c), August, 1998
Updated December 1999

Ropewalk

The ropewalk, with a very short setup to fit the photo. The drive motor is optional as discussed in the text. The drive end is to the right, the idler end is at the left, the top is mounted on the strands, and the bucket provides tension as the rope is laid up. There are four threads to each strand for this photo.

 

The term ropewalk drives a horrible fear into many ship model builders, and it becomes almost a matter of avoiding the subject at all cost. However, for very small "cost" and a little effort you can make your own ropewalk. With only a few minutes of further time you can learn to use it productively.

 

rope

Rope made on the ropewalk Left is the basic unidentified polyester thread, Next is a three-thread right-hand rope. Middle is a six-thread, two-thread per strand rope. Next is a twelve-thread, four-thread per strand rope. Far right is a twelve-thread, four-thread per strand left-hand rope of #18 button & carpet cotton thread.

 

I have made several, and always tried mounting an electric motor to drive them. This really is not necessary, as I discovered when I saw Cor Hardonk, Curator of ship models at the Prins Hendrik Maritime Museum in Rotterdam, demonstrate his simple machine during the NRG's maritime tour of Northern Europe in 1996. He spun a beautifully laid rope in just a couple of minutes by hand cranking. The hand cranking method is satisfactory for shorter length of rope, in the range of three to six feet. For ropes longer than six feet there are definite advantages to the motor driven ropewalk, the main one being the ability to be at the point of lay-up of the rope.

When the perceptive eyes of the Nautical Research Guild's reviewers doing the Model Review Service and Model Judging Service on my tug caught the deception of a last minute inclusion of package twine for a tow rope to meet a display deadline, I decided to construct the simple ropewalk seen in Rotterdam to lay-up the planned rope.

The first requirement in describing a ropewalk is to understand the construction of the rope. An excellent pamphlet produced by The Historic Dockyard, Chatham called The Ropery, goes through the entire process in sixteen pages. The pamphlet may still be available. Essentially, a rope (or line) is made up of strands that may vary in number for various purposes, but for a model ropewalk we will stay with three. These strands are made up of yarns, which can vary, from one to perhaps twenty. The yarns are made up of the raw material such as hemp fiber. For a model ropewalk there will only be rope, strands and yarns, and the yarns we will use are threads of linen, cotton, or polyester.

 

 

rope

The Anatomy of Rope

A. Fibres

B. Yarns

C. Strand

D. Rope

Photo courtesy of The Historic Dockyard, Chatham.

 

 

rope

Types of Rope

a. Four-strand, or shroud-laid, with a 'goke' or heart made from thinner rope.

b. Three-strand, or hawser-laid

c. Nine-strand, or cable-laid

Photo courtesy of The Historic Dockyard, Chatham.

 

The yarns are twisted together in such a manner that they lay up ("close" is the English term) into a rope and in doing so neutralize the twisting. The finished rope is neutral with no tendency to twist further or to unravel, except for fraying at the ends, which is corrected by serving the rope. This fraying is natural and will happen in any rope you purchase.

The photos and drawing show the basics of the design of the ropewalk. It consists of a right or driving end, a left or idler/moveable end, a top or guide to obtain an even lay, and a weight hanging off the left end to provide tension. The essential materials are scrap woods, one large gear, three small gears, brass rod and tubing, a sheet of metal, and a wood dowel. The gears are obtained at a hobby shop that has a good supply of R/C cars. The larger one is a plastic 66 tooth, 32 pitch, two-inch (approx.) gear by Traxxas, #3166 ($3.00). The three smaller gears are metal - 20 tooth, 32 pitch, with a 5/8-inch diameter (approx.) by RRP, #0200 ($2.95 each). The important things to remember are that there should be a large difference in the diameters, and the pitch (teeth per inch) should be the same. A few additional items are necessary if the ropewalk is to be powered.

 

drawing

For reference purposes the dimensions of this unit are approximately 10 inches by five inches for the full base, and ten inches high. The wood is 7/8 inches thick.

 

Obtain brass rod to fit the center holes of the gears. The gears are mounted on the brass rod. The smaller gears conveniently have set screws to hold them. A large gear with setscrews could not be found, so a mount plate had to be fabricated to hold the gear to the rod. This can be seen in the photo. I have since found that a good epoxy will hold the large gear on the shaft if the surfaces are clean and abraded. It can also be seen that I substituted tubing for the rod on the larger gear. For the two sizes of rods locate brass tubing that is the next size larger so the rod fits snugly in the tubing, but does not bind. The tubing will become the sleeves or bearings in which the rods holding the gears run.

The wood supports should be at least 3/4 inch thick, and be hardwood, not pine. I used maple so the bearings would not work loose in the wood. A groove (dado) was cut in the wood bases for the upright pieces. Later the uprights were glued and screwed to the base. The dado probably is not necessary if you do not have the capability. But first, mark the right upright with the location of the center of the large gear. This should be near the top to give clearance for the handle or motor. Place the large gear exactly on this center pencil mark, and put a small gear next to it, insuring a tight fit. Mark the center of the small gear on the wood. With a compass draw a circle around the center for the large gear using the point for the center of the small gear as a reference, but adding about 3/64 inch to the radius. This additional space will permit free turning of the gears and hopefully will compensate for any errors in drilling the wood. (If this fails, start with another piece of wood.) The small gears should be equally spaced around the large gear. Conveniently, the radius of any circle can be ticked off around the circumference and the result is six evenly spaced marks. Use three of the marks to locate the holes for the bearings of the small gears.

Drill the holes for the bearings. The small gears have a 1/8-inch drive rod. The outside diameter of the bearing tubing is therefore 5/32 inch. Use that size drill and do not attempt to enlarge the hole. Cut three bearings just slightly less than the thickness of the wood. Carefully drive the bearings into the holes using a rubber mallet or at least a protection on the end of the tube to prevent damage. If your tubing and drills are the same size as mine, the tubing should fit in the hole very snugly, and will not come out. If loose, I'm sure some epoxy will hold them in. Do the same for the large gear bearing.

The rods for the small gears are cut so about an inch protrudes out one side and 1/4 inch on the other. Brass hooks are soldered into the end of the rods to hold the threads. The small gears on their shafts are mounted in the bearings as shown. On the power side there is a washer and a collar with a set screw. These collars are for R/C control rod and are available in the hobby shop.

The large center gear mounts in a similar fashion, but a little innovation is necessary to hold it in place since there are no control rod clamps with the large diameter required. An extra piece of tubing on the handle side, soldered to the handle mounting plate, works to hold the handle in place with a small bolt and nut. Judicious use of epoxy on the gear center hole and on the large brass tube will avoid using the mounting plate and soldering. Mount a handle, such as a wood dowel loosely on the handle mounting plate, and the business end (right) of the ropewalk is finished.

W. Kelley Hannan, NRG member and shop notes coordinator, suggests the following alternative method for locating and drilling the holes for the gears:

For the rope walk you will have one large gear and three small gears mounted on a plate (or between plates) around the large gear. The large gear is turned by the crank or motor and drives the small gears.

Drill a hole in the in the plate for the shaft of the large gear. Insert that shaft in the hole and slide the large gear onto it. Place the plate with gear on the table of the drill press. Position a small gear on the plate approximately meshed with the large gear. Chuck the shaft (or a piece of shaft material) for the small gear in the drill chuck. Now lower the drill chuck and manipulate the plate so that the shaft for the small gear enters the hole in the small gear. Lock or hold the drill spindle while you manipulate the plate to achieve the desired mesh. (Some backlash is not a problem with rope-walks. It is better than a binding mesh.) When the mesh is OK, clamp the plate to the drill press table.

Raise the spindle. Remove the small gear and its shaft. Put the appropriate drill in the chuck and drill the hole for the small gear shaft. Repeat for the other two gears in their locations.

Continuing:

The left end of the ropewalk has a rod with a hook on one end and a handle on the other, mounted in a similar fashion in a bushing so it turns freely. This follows the design of the Rotterdam ropewalk, however I have found that for longer ropes it is more convenient to have the left end turn freely. This is accomplished by placing a thrust bearing for model race cars on the rod opposite the rope hook. Note, some use fishing swivels to provide free rotation. (See later note on the problems with the thrust bearing and swivel.) An additional item is an eye or hook on the base of the left end for tying a rope to a weight over the side of the table.

The final item required is the top, bobbin, cone or separator. I prefer the term top. The purpose of the top is to keep the strands separated until there is enough twist to start the rope lay up process or closing, and to make the strands come together evenly. The top is made from a piece of hard wood. I used some dogwood that had been curing in my shop for several years. Make it into the shape of an elliptical cone and cut or file three longitudinal grooves equally spaced around the circumference. The exact shape is not critical but the grooves should be filed and sanded smooth and coated with varnish and wax.

 

Top

The top in position.

This top is:
1 3/4 inches long
1 1/8 inches in diameter. These dimensions are not critical.

Note thrust bearing on the left.

 

To practice with the ropewalk, clamp both wood bases to a table about five feet apart. Place three or four pieces of common thread ("yarn") on one of the three small gear ends. This thread goes to the single rod on the left end. There should be some tension in the threads, and the tension should be about equal between the strands. Do the same for the other two small gear ends. Place some weight in a bucket tied to a rope attached to the left end. Place the top between the three sets of threads. The tension provided by the weight should keep the top in place. Remove the clamp from the left end and start turning the handle on the right end. Practice will give you experience with the amount of twist required and amount of weight, but initially there should be quite a few turns taken.

As you turn the left end will try to move toward the right end since the rope is shortening due to the twisting of the yarns. Let the movement occur, but do not let the rope go slack - be sure there is enough weight holding it back. However, too much weight (tension) will break the threads. If not enough tension is exerted on the strands they will "bunch up" as they are twisted. If this happens, do not throw away the lay-up. Just reverse the twisting until the strands are back to normal, apply more tension, and then continue. When you think you have enough twist, turn the left handle so the strands lay up into a rope. If the strands are given a left-hand twist the rope will lay up right-handed. As the rope lays up the length will again vary, so be sure to keep tension, and control the top by hand as it moves along the rope so an even twist is achieved. Do not let the top move freely as is done in some ropewalks that use model railroad tracks and wheels to permit the free movement. The top performs the critical lay-up, and it must have very positive control. Also as the rope lays up it is necessary to provide more twist at the right in the individual strands. When finished the laid-up rope will be as much as one quarter shorter that the original length. Neutralize the rope by applying tension and relieving it while also rubbing your fingers along the rope. The rope should be close to neutral, but there might be a little untwisting when it is removed from the ropewalk due to too much twist in the strands relative to the turns in the laid -up rope. It is best to tie off the ends with a piece of thread or a knot to prevent unraveling of the threads.

Right-hand or "hawser" rope, like the threads on a standard screw, and left-hand laid rope can easily be done with multi-strand threads. In actual practice the right-hand rope is usually three strands and the left-hand rope is nine strands, made up of three right-hand three stranded ropes. A three strand left-hand laid rope is adequate for the small scales involved. With this ropewalk design turning the handle (large gear) in the counterclockwise direction produces right-hand laid rope. If one thread per strand is used care must be taken to insure the direction of twist does not unravel the thread. Some threads can be "untwisted" while others will fall apart. Most thread has a right-hand twist, therefore the lay-up of right-hand rope requires the single threads to be twisted in a left-hand direction. This takes the original twist out of the thread, and then twists it backwards. The result is a rope that is not as smooth as it would be if laid-up left-handed. When more than one thread per strand is used, the threads twist upon themselves, and the original twist is not affected.

power overview

The rope walk with the motor mounted. The control box and battery holder provide the manufacture of any length of rope.

 

The addition of a motor drive permits the making of an unlimited length of rope because the operator does not have to have easy access to the right, drive end. The motor I show is an old six-volt Dumas Pittman model boat motor with drive gears the same as those used for the ropewalk. Mounting is straight forward, and the energy comes from D cells connected in series/parallel to provide three volts, and sufficient current capacity to make a lot of rope. Control is provided by a wire wound potentiometer and a reversing switch (double pole-double throw, center off) mounted in a utility box, all available from a local electronics store (Radio Shack). Two short extension cords were cut in half and the cut ends were soldered to the components. The plug and receptacle ends attach to two appropriate length extension cords. The electrical arrangement with the on-off-reversing switch in the box requires four wires into it, two from the battery and two to the motor. The batteries could be attached to the box to eliminate one extension cord, but the added weight is not recommended. The box can be carried to the length of the extension cords to permit access to the controls while you are monitoring the action of the top and the lay-up of the rope. Turn on the motor and let the action begin. Be aware, however, the bucket with the weight may have to be moved as the rope is formed because it may come all the way up to the top of the table. For a fifty-foot starting setup, ten feet could be lost in the forming of the rope, and this is the equivalent distance the bucket must travel upward.



motor closeup

Drive end detail with the motor mounted.

 

wiring

Wiring diagram for the electric drive motor. This permits access to the controls while monitoring the action of the top and the lay-up of the rope.

 

aditional



SOME ADDITIONAL THOUGHTS (12/1/99) Following extensive use of the ropewalk in preparing for a demonstration at the Nautical Research Guild Conference in San Diego in November 1999, I have found a couple of modifications desirable. One of these modifications, as suggested above, is a motor at the "far or single spindle end" of the ropewalk. This really helps in laying up the rope. I could not find a thrust bearing capable of freely spinning while under the required tension to perform the lay up. (see photo)

A separate speed control was added to the "black box" for this motor so the rpm could be adjusted to coincide with the twisting.

 

Another improvement is the simple addition of a small rubber band on the top to hold it on the threads while preparing the setup, and in case momentary hand release is necessary during operation. While laying up the rope the top should be held to control the progress of the lay up. When about four inches from the three spindle end (almost finished with the lay up) remove the rubber band. At this time the top can also be removed and the final few inches can be controlled by hand turning the gears and applying proper tension on the rope. After about five "trys" the proper feel for the entire procedure will be achieved. (see photo)

The final item (as shown at the bottom of the photo) is the device used to measure the diameter of threads as given in the tables below. This device was constructed by Ken Dorr, former NRG Advertising and Books Manager. It is a dowel around which the thread is wound. Wind sufficient turns to reach 0.1, 0.2, 1/4, 1/2 or more inches. Count the number of turns and then divide by the distance. This is a much more accurate method of measuring thread diameter than using a micrometer, which will crush the thread and give a distorted reading.

End of additional thoughts

 

You are not restricted to this design or these materials. I have made a test ropewalk from Lego pieces. The toy construction pieces include various size gears that can be purchased separately. The gears do not have the smooth contact like the R/C car gears, but that is not critical. The cost of the r/c gears is really not significant.

The thing that frightens model builders most about ropewalks at first glance is that there are no set rules for the operation. It would seem that the size of thread, the number of strands, and the amount of twisting related to the finished rope size could all be laid out nicely on a mathematics table. This is not possible due to the many variables involved. While watching the 1135-foot long ropewalk at Chatham Dockyard in England I asked an operator if such a table exists. He told me no, they lay the rope based upon experience. That ropewalk has been operating for over one hundred years. After practicing with various thicknesses of thread and various numbers of threads per strand, and after gaining experience with the amount of twist required, you can create and record a set of data for using the ropewalk.

You are now ready to use good material such as linen to lay up the required rope for a model. The model rope laid up on a ropewalk will have an appearance similar to the full-scale rope, and will be much better than large diameter single thread material available in sewing shops. Even the old, out-of-production and highly coveted Cuttyhunk fishing line does not have a nice laid up appearance to it. Most of what I have from several years ago looks squashed and flattened. One caution should be noted. The number of turns in the rope is about half of the full-scale counterpart. In other words, if the full-scale rope has 14 strands per foot, the model rope might have only seven per scale foot. This difference is not noticeable, and is far outweighed by the better appearance. However, when doing splicing, such as an eye splice with this model rope, a three tuck splice will be about twice as long as its counterpart in the full scale rope. This will look odd, and the correction for the scale rope is to take fewer tucks.

The coveted linen line is difficult to find. It is sold in bulk to linen mills, but small bobbins are usually not available. As a decent substitute the polyester, poly/cotton, and some cotton will do, but granted, linen is the best if it can be found in the thinner diameters.

For a detailed discussion on the availability and characteristics of various materials on the market suitable for rigging and for use on a ropewalk see the Shop Note on this web site.

In preparing for the NRG Conference demonstartion I found it advisable to use different thread material in order to make an informed judgement on some of the better products to purchase. The results are given in the next addendum.

The following is quoted from NRG member Phil Krol of Wheaton, Illinois:

"A good alternative (to linen) is Egyptian cotton, which differs from regular cotton in that it has long fibres. Two good brands of tatting thread in this material is DMC Cordonnet Special, and Anchor Cordonnet Crochet (made in Germany), generally available in stichery stores and especially those catering to the bobbin lace folks. Both the DMC and Anchor come in 10 diameters from #10 thru #100. Three strands of #100 yields .018" to .020 depending on counter weight used in twisting. They also have finer Egyptian cotton such as 80/2, 3 strands of which will twist into .010". That is as small as I go in twisted line, as any smaller, you can not see the twist, so there is no point in trying. Just use the finer material as is. This Egyptian cotton I speak of takes dyeing beautifully, and produces first rate rope, and is readily available."

The NRG volunteer for shopnote editing, W. Kelley Hannan of Dedham, Massachusetts, says,

"While linen is the standard, I have used surgical silk because it is available in smaller diameters. The source is Deknatel, Inc., 600 Airport Road, Fall River, MA 02720, 508-677-6600. The last time I ordered size 600 was the smallest available. I measure that at 0.005. It comes in black or white in spools of 100 yards. It lays up very nicely. Rigs as easily as linen."

 line

 line

ADDENDUM ON MATERIALS (10/1/99)

Comments by Rob Napier, former Editor of the Nautical Research Journal, former Secretary of the Guild, and career ship model professional. (9/99)

I do not have a "primary alternative" to linen. I am not a linen purist. I use whatever comes to hand that will do a rigging job well, whether building or repairing a model. This is what happens when you do lots of rigging repair. You learn that linen was not the defacto line used in ship model work. People used anything they had. In model ship repair, you have to match existing work so you learn to have a lot of other fibers around. I've rerigged models with everything from commercial fisherman's heavy cotton or polypropylene gangin (pronounced gan'-jin) line to fly tier's nylon. In addition to linen, I have used braided nylon fishing line, cotton kite twine, crochet cotton, cotton and nylon carpet thread, furrier's cotton, silk veterinary suture, buttonhole twist, silk and cotton embroidery twist, monofilament fishing line, carpenter's cotton chalk line, sailmaker's dacron cord, hemp marlin, sewing threads of all types, etc., etc., and several types of wire.

Fly tiers' nylon is very fine and strong and comes in a bevy of colors. I don't know any brands, but check with Cabela's or L.L. Bean's or the like.

Regular cotton-polyester sewing thread is ubiquitous and sometimes works pretty well for me and can be used right alongside other lines with success. It comes in a gazillion colors. It can be colored and slight fuzz can be laid down in the traditional manner with beeswax. Avoid fuzzier types.

I like working with silk because it is hard. But it is also slippery. Its elasticity lets you set rigging up taught without too much strain. I bought tons of silk from Model Shipways years ago when they first offered the silk veterinary suture as a substitute for the rapidly vanishing Ashaway Cuttyhunk linen fishing line. With luck, the quantity will last my lifetime.

Actually, the obsession with linen line surprises me. I agree that it is wonderful in the right applications. However, the passion for it works against modelers to an alarming degree. Because a modeler might think linen is better, he might go to terrific lengths to use it simply so he can say he used it. But linen is only better if it makes the model "work" better; in and of itself it does not make a model better. Because the linen which is generally available today in the United States is so poor, and because of the linen mystique, modelers tend to purchase and use poor, soft-laid, fuzzy linen thinking it is good because it is linen. Then they show the models and don't necessarily win prizes or make sales. I have not found a domestic high-quality linen line source that is reliable and that will sell in small quantities.

Modelers would be better served to study the sizes, textures, and colors of real rigging in person or in artwork or photographs so they can see what it looks or looked like on the prototypes of the vessels they are portraying. If they visit actual vessels, they should study rigging at close range and from a distance. Remember that viewing a model is like viewing a ship from a distance. Then they should look for the material that will do the right job. Look beyond hobby oriented mail order catalogs and shops. Look in hardware stores, notions stores, sporting goods stores, tackle shops, leather worker's shops, tailor shops, cobbler's shops, chandlers, anywhere that line or string or thread is used or sold for holding things together.

Believe it or not, I have occasionally found at flea markets good line on large spindles used in manufacturing. Sometimes it is slightly, meaning irregularly, discolored, which adds flavor for some types of atmospheric modeling. I have found cotton and linen and nylon thus, hard laid, no fuzz -- good looking rope-like line.

A LOOK AT THREAD MATERIALS
by Gene Larson

As has been stated there are many places to look for suitable materials for rigging ship models. Linen is not the only material that will produce high quality rigging. In fact some linen is worse than many of the alternatives

While picking up dry cleaning I noticed the seamstress area and on the shelf of the work bench there were large cones of thread. I asked where they were purchased, and I was told that they order them from a supplier. This supplier could be pursued further, but perhaps a request to the seamstress to order some cones for "ship model rigging" would be acceptable. At least it is worth a try. The various types available could be looked at on the workbench, as well as the variety of colors. It should be easy to find a thin, smooth appropriate color. The larger cone is the way to purchase thread since so much of it is used up on a rope walk. The small spools do not last long.

The following table has been compiled by me based on experience with preparing a demonstration of the rope walk. The highly scientific approach,; feel in fingers, a calibrated eyeball, and a single opinion, has yielded some suggestions for where to start. The point of the exercise was to determine if there is anything available that will produce the desired results.

The best approach is not to necessarily look for the specific brands listed below, but to look in many places, spend a dollar each for spools of thread, and experiment yourself to obtain the rigging you need.

Avoid the white threads. There are cream colors that are very suitable for running rigging. The blacks are all good colors, except for the shiney black. I did find some very dark brown thread that is excellent for representing tarred rigging. It has to be held next to black to be sure it isn't black. Look for Gutermann CA 02776 in polyester or cotton, color 596.

One criteria, however, is that the finer the starting thread the better the end product. Anything over .012 inches is probably too heavy to produce good rope on a rope walk.

MATERIAL

SIZE

MAKER

RATING

REMARKS

LINEN

.012

Old, from Model Shipways

Very Good

 

COTTON (100%)

.009

Gutermann CA 02776

Very Good

 

COTTON

.011

Coats T16

Very Good

Glace finish, hand quilting

COTTON/POLYESTER

.012

Coats, Dual Duty

Very Good

cotton covered for buttons and carpet

COTTON/POLYESTER

.011

Coats T8

Very Good

dual duty cotton covered poly, Glace finish for quilting

COTTON/POLYESTER

.009

Mettler hand quilt waxed 997

Very Good

33% cotton, 67% polyester very good

NYLON

.012

Conso #69, color 751

Very Good

heavy duty

SILK

.010

Pearsall's - J.P. 210

Very Good

Chinese Twist Silk

LINEN (marked 6/60)

.016

From a large spool of unknown source

Fair

a little too heavy to lay up

LINEN

.012

Fawcett

Fair

a little rough (large spool)

COTTON (100%)

.016

Cabella 30, (France)

Fair

slight fuzz

COTTON

.010

Coats Super Sheen

Fair

Heavy Duty mercerized with Silicone, slight fuzz

POLYESTER (100%)

.009

Gutermann CA 02776

Fair

slight fuzz

POLYESTER/COTTON

.009

Mettler 137 #40

Fair

slight fuzz - waxed for quilting

POLYESTER (100%)

.009

Mettler 1161 Metrosene plus

Fair

slight fuzz

POLYESTER (100%)

.010

Magnolia Mill

Fair

slight fuzz

LINEN (marked 3/4)

.020

From a large spool of unknown source

Poor

a little too heavy to lay up

POLYESTER (100%)

.009

Maxi-Lock 32599 natural

Poor

fuzz Maxi-Lock brand

 

 

References

There have been articles in previous Nautical Research Journals on ropewalks, all very informative and accurate. You might want to read them for further reference.

  • 17:124-128 "How to Make Model Rope" by Harold Hahn (Also in NRG's Ship Modelers Shop Notes)
  • 28:7-8 Ropewalk by George Dukes in article "Restoration of Ville de Paris.
  • 36:98 A brief description by Lloyd Frisbee in article "A Model of 32-Gun Continental Frigate Hancock"
  • L2:102-104 Ropewalk for the Modeler by William Honey (Also in NRG's Ship Modelers Shop Notes)

Other references include:

  • The Ropery, Visitors Handbook, The Historic Dockyard, Chatham, Kent ME4 4TE, 1991, available at 1.50 English Pounds. 3.50 English Pounds total including postage and packing. Will accept International Reply Coupons (postage) for payment. Recommend writing first to confirm quantity.
  • The Anatomy of Nelson's Ships by Longridge, C. Nepean
  • Modelling the Brig-of-War IRENE, by Petrejus, E. W.
  • Ships of the American Revolution and their Models, by Hahn, Harold M.
  • Ship Modeling from Stem to Stern, by Roth, Milton
  • "Make Your Own Rope", by Huettner, Daniel F., Ships in Scale magazine, September/October 1985
  • "Miniature Rope", by Rose, Dr. Robert M., Ships in Scale magazine, November/December 1987 and following three issues.

Sources of materials for rigging are numerous. Some of them are listed on the NRG web site.