BASIC TRAFFIC HANDLING SUMMARY

 

CW

 

W3YVQ, V6.8

In this document:

BASIC TRAFFIC HANDLING  -  CW, INTRODUCTION

1. THE ARRL MESSAGE FORMAT

MESSAGE CHARACTERS - PUNCTUATION

MESSAGE FORM

PREAMBLE

OP NOTES

PRECEDENCES

EXERCISE MESSAGES

HANDLING INSTRUCTIONS

EMAIL ADDRESSES AND URLS, FORMATTING

ARL, THE ARRL NUMBERED RADIOGRAM PROSIGN

BLANKS IN ARRL NUMBERED RADIOGRAMS

TEXT, GROUP DEFINITION, GROUP COUNTING

DELIVERING RADIOGRAMS

SERVICE MESSAGES, SVC

REPORTING, SAR/PSHR

2. SENDING THE MESSAGE, CW

FRAMES

PROSIGNS

OPERATIONAL GROUPS

SENDING SPEED, CLARITY, PAUSES

NO EXTRANEOUS WORDS

SENDING EXAMPLE, SINGLE MESSAGE

SENDING EXAMPLES, BOOKED MESSAGES

BLANKS USED IN BOOK TRANSMISSION

QSK OPERATION, INTERRUPTING

JUMPING AHEAD

FILL REQUESTS

FILL RESPONSES

RESOLVING A CHECK DISCREPANCY - THE QTB METHOD

3. NET OPERATIONS, CW

ID REQUIREMENTS

CHECKING IN, LISTING TRAFFIC

NET OPERATING PROTOCOLS

NET DUTIES AND FORMAT

OTHER MODES, BANDS

DISPATCHING TRAFFIC

EXCUSING STATIONS

4. THE MESSAGE EXCHANGES

THE TWO STATION EXCHANGE

RETURNING TO THE NET

WORDS FOR THE NET, INFORMAL ANNOUNCEMENTS

QNC, FORMAL MESSAGE TO ALL NET STATIONS ON NET

BULLETIN(S) TO MULTIPLE STATIONS, ON AND OFF NET

BOOK TO MULTIPLE STATIONS, ON AND OFF NET

5. ARRL Q-SIGNALS

6. ARRL NUMBERED RADIOGRAMS

 

BASIC TRAFFIC HANDLING  -  CW, INTRODUCTION

This document contains selected excerpts from the ARRL NTS Methods and Practices Guidelines (MPG, PSCM Appendix B). This summary of basic topics is intended to be a ready reference for the essentials of CW traffic handling taught in the local ARES® and NTS operating environments. It is a useful handout or web review to use as a follow-up to class work or practice nets. Mentors are encouraged to use the higher level documentation to build lesson plans for more intensive training in the various methods of efficient traffic net operations and net control duties as well as the integration of the digital modes. Also included here are the Precedences, ARRL Handling Instructions, Q-signals and ARRL Numbered Radiograms often provided to the new amateur radio operator.

 

1. THE ARRL MESSAGE FORMAT

MESSAGE CHARACTERS - PUNCTUATION

·         CHARACTERS:
Only Letters (caps), Figures and/or Slashes (“/”) are permitted characters when formatting the ARRL radiogram.

·         PUNCTUATION:
Punctuation symbols other than the “/” are not used. Spelled-out words representing the desired punctuation are substituted when formatting the radiogram, with the following exceptions:

X

X is substituted for a period when formatting the text (except to end the last sentence). The text may not end with an “X” - just leave it off. The text ends with the <BT> when sending.

R

R is substituted for a decimal point in figure groups when the message is formatted, as in 146R67 for 146.67.

/

The SLASH symbol, or slant bar, is permitted and is used to separate parts of a mixed group; as in AB/3, W1AW/3, or 24/7, etc. It is seldom used as the first or last character of a group. The BACKSLASH, (“\”) on the other hand, must be spelled out as a word group when formatting the message.

 

 

Other punctuation is spelled out.

DASH

The hyphen symbol is not permitted, hence the group DASH as a separate group is used to separate the parts of a 9 digit zip code; as in: 21200 DASH 1234;

or to separate parts of compound names, etc. The group HYPHEN may be used within the text if desired.

 

QUERY

A question is ended with the group QUERY instead of the X for the period.

(more)

COMMA, COLON, SEMICOLON, EXCLAMATION, UNDERSCORE, TILDE, BACKSLASH, etc., may also be used when formatting the message, and all are spelled out as separate word groups where needed to substitute for punctuation symbols. (See also the Email Addresses and URLs, Formatting Section.)

 

·         EMAIL and URL Address Punctuation:

 

 See the Email Addresses and URLs, Formatting Section.

 

·         See Section 2 for prosigns or prowords used during transmission of the message which are not written into the radiogram itself. These are signals to the receiving operator.

 

MESSAGE FORM

(Prepared for this document - figures in parentheses are referred to in sections below.):

 

PREAMBLE

Part

Formatting Rules

1

Message Numbers may contain only figures with no leading zeros. Number may be preceded by SVC + space for service messages. See Service Messages.

2

Precedence: Emergency, P, W, or R. May be preceded by “TEST” for exercise messages. See Precedence table and Exercise Messages.

3

Handling Instructions: OPTIONAL. See table of Handling Instructions including the formatting rules at the bottom of the table.

4

Station of Origin: Call sign of the station originating the message - unchanged from origination through delivery.

5

Check:  Number of groups in the text, preceded by ARL + space if ARRL Numbered Radiograms present in the text. No part of the radiogram may be altered except in the case of an error leading to a discrepancy between the check and the actual group count the check may be appended with the corrected value, as in: 12/13, 12/ARL 12.

6

Place of Origin: The location of the person for whom the message is originated, not necessarily the location of the station of origin. When different a “signature op note” may be used as needed to instruct handlers relative to servicing or replies.

7

Time Filed:  OPTIONAL (Time message inserted into the amateur system -seldom used on Routine traffic, often used on Priority traffic to “time stamp” the content.) Unmarked times are assumed to be UTC and must agree with the month and date. If local time is to be used (often done for served agencies) a time zone designator must be added, as in: 1430L, or 1430EST, or 1430EDT, etc., and the month and date must agree. (The time filed is formatted as a single mixed group with no spaces.)

8, 9

Month, Date: The default month and date are UTC. If a local Time Filed is used the month and date must agree with the Time Filed. The Month group is entered as the three letter abbreviation. The Date group is entered as one or two figures with no leading zeros.

 

OP NOTES

10

Address Op Note: Used to include information relative to delivery, etc. Content is generally not delivered to the addressee.

11

Signature Op Note: Used to include information relative to replies or servicing, etc. Content is generally not delivered to the addressee.

 

PRECEDENCES

(See ARRL FSD-3)

EMERGENCY (Spelled out on form.)*
Any message having life and death urgency to any person or group of persons, which is transmitted by Amateur Radio in the absence of regular commercial facilities. This includes official messages of welfare agencies during emergencies requesting supplies, materials or instructions vital to relief of stricken populace in emergency areas. During normal times, it will be very rare. On CW/RTTY, this designation will always be spelled out. When in doubt, do not use it.

PRIORITY (P)
Use abbreviation P on CW/RTTY. This classification is for a) important messages having a specific time limit, b) official messages not covered in the emergency category, c) press dispatches and emergency related traffic not of the utmost urgency, d) notice of death or injury in a disaster area, personal or official.

WELFARE (W)
This classification, abbreviated as W on CW/RTTY, refers to either an inquiry as to the health and welfare of an individual in the disaster area or an advisory from the disaster area that indicates all is well. Welfare traffic is handled only after all emergency and priority traffic is cleared. The Red Cross equivalent to an incoming Welfare message is DWI (Disaster Welfare Inquiry).

ROUTINE (R)
Most traffic in normal times will bear this designation. In disaster situations, traffic labeled Routine (R on CW/RTTY) should be handled last, or not at all when circuits are busy with higher precedence traffic.

·         These precedences are not meant to prohibit handling lower level traffic until all higher levels are passed. Common sense dictates handling higher precedence traffic before lower when possible and/or outlets are available.

 

* EMERGENCY: Emergency is always spelled out in the preamble. Means other than Amateur Radio should be included in the delivery options. EMERGENCY messages have immediate urgency. They should take priority over any other activity and should be passed by the best means available with the cooperation of all stations.

 

EXERCISE MESSAGES

·         Messages in the ARRL format passed for test and exercise purposes may be given a precedence preceded by the word “TEST,” as in “TEST R,” “TEST P,” “TEST W,” or “TEST EMERGENCY.”

·         It is customary to indicate within the text of such messages the words “TEST MESSAGE” as the first two groups, or “EXERCISE” as the first and last groups of the text. This helps alert listeners to the nature of the content to avoid undue alarm.

·         In some drills the life of the exercise message may be terminated when the exercise period is terminated, i.e., any such messages are not handled after the exercise. Consult with the ARES/RACES/NTS group conducting the drill to determine if such messages should be filed, handled and delivered afterwards to permit a full evaluation of the exercise.

 

HANDLING INSTRUCTIONS

ARRL RADIOGRAM HANDLING INSTRUCTIONS ("HX-CODES")

HXA__

(Followed by number.) Collect landline delivery authorized by addressee within ____ miles, (if no number in blank, authorization is unlimited). This means that the originating station has obtained authorization from the addressee, through the party originating the message, to call collect when delivering the message.

HXB__

(Followed by number.) Cancel message if not delivered within ____ hours of filing time; service message back to originating station. NOTE: filing time must be included in preamble.

HXC

Report date and time of delivery of the message back to the originating station by service message.

HXD

Report to originating station the identity of station from which received, plus date and time. Report identity of station to which relayed, plus date and time, or if delivered, report date and time and method of delivery (this information is sent by service message to the originating station).

HXE

Delivering station get reply from addressee, originate message back. This reply is sent to the person from whom the original message was received, at the "place of origin", using a full address obtained from the addressee. If an address is not available, a reply can often be successfully routed back to the station of origin since a record is kept of originator's info.

HXF__

(Followed by a number.) Hold delivery until ____ (date). This blank contains the number of the day on which the message should be delivered (even if it is in the following month).

HXG

Delivery by mail or landline toll call not required. If toll call or other expense involved, cancel message and send service message back to originating station.

Compliance with these instructions is mandatory. (See ARRL FSD-218, the "Pink Card")
MORE THAN ONE HX__ CODE MAY BE USED.

If more than one code is used they may be combined provided no numbers are to be inserted; otherwise the HX should be repeated, thus: HXAC, or HXA50 HXC

Ed. note: The numbers following eligible HX_ codes are expected. In this example the HXA in the first case has the range number intentionally omitted, thus the “C” may be appended. In the second case, where the optional 50 mile range is included, the figures force the separation of the full “HXC.”

 

EMAIL ADDRESSES AND URLS, FORMATTING

When so formatted these addresses may be sent with the standard protocols. When copied at the receiving end, all characters are assumed to be contiguous unless noted otherwise. Groups are counted after formatting.

EMAIL:

john_doe@domain.net - JOHN UNDERSCORE DOE ATSIGN DOMAIN DOT NET

URL:

http://www.arrl.org/ - HTTP COLON SLASH SLASH WWW DOT ARRL DOT ORG SLASH

Also encountered may be:

(&)

AMPERSAND

($)

DOLLARSIGN

(%)

PERCENTSIGN

(*)

ASTERISK

(>)

GREATERTHANSIGN

(~)

TILDE

(\)

BACKSLASH

(<)

LESSTHANSIGN

 

UPPERCASE [letter(s)]

(-)

DASH (HYPHEN)

(#)

NUMBERSIGN

 

LOWERCASE [letter(s)]

The group SPACE may be used if a space is an integral internal part of the syntax sequence. Note that a combination such as “#somd” (1 group) becomes NUMBERSIGN SOMD (two groups) written into the radiogram, and is sent as written.

 

Within email, packet and URL addresses included in the radiogram, DOT as a separate group is substituted for a period (decimal points are not used in such addresses). Other groups such as UNDERSCORE and ATSIGN are included as necessary to format such addresses as a series of word groups with no punctuation symbols.

 

All sequences so rewritten as groups should return the original email address, packet address, or URL without ambiguity at the point of delivery.

 

ARL, THE ARRL NUMBERED RADIOGRAM PROSIGN

ARL (in check)

Indicates the presence of one or more ARRL numbered radiogram(s) in the text. The letters ARL precede the Check figures separated by a single space, as in: ARL 12.

ARL (in text)

The separate initial group ARL precedes each ARRL Numbered Radiogram (numbers spelled out) in the text, as in:

ARL FIFTY ARL FIFTY SIX NEW LICENSE

 

BLANKS IN ARRL NUMBERED RADIOGRAMS

BLANKS

ARL Numbered Radiograms

Some ARRL Numbered Radiograms contain one or more blanks for information to be added by the originator. When formatting the single radiogram the information for the blank(s) follows the ARRL Radiogram number(s), as in ARL FIFTY THREE LETTER …, or

ARL FORTY SEVEN 305 W1AW MAR 15 2330 …

·         Note: The blanks shown in the printed ARRL Numbered Radiograms may be filled in with all the needed information to complete the sense of the message. These blanks should not be confused with the group “BLANK” used as a placeholder when sending traffic booked.

 

TEXT, GROUP DEFINITION, GROUP COUNTING

The radiogram text is generally 25 words or less using the characters shown above. The occasional text with a few more groups is permissible to avoid splitting the message. Much longer messages may be broken into two or more radiograms (which may be transmitted booked) at a point where each separate part makes sense as a single message to the greatest extent possible.


A group is defined as a series of concatenated letters, figures, and/or slashes, with no intermediate spaces, but with a space on the left and on the right.


The group count for the check is the number of all such individual groups between the <BT>s that frame the text. The <BT>s are not counted in the check.

Examples:

1 GROUP

2 GROUPS

3 GROUPS

THANKYOU

THANK YOU

I THANK YOU

X

555 1234

410 555 1234

JPOLE

J POLE

2M J POLE

146R67

146R67 MHZ

146 DECIMAL 67

11PM

11 PM

11 PM LOCAL

2345EST

2345 EST

1145 PM EST

BACOOEPEOC

BACOOEP EOC

BACO OEP EOC

 

DELIVERING RADIOGRAMS

·         Every attempt should be made to deliver NTS radiograms within 48 hours of origination if at all possible. Verify addressee information and phone numbers for delivery using the local phone book or internet services.

·         Radiograms are delivered to the public typically by telephone, reaching the addressee directly, and indicating that you are a local amateur radio operator providing a free public service by sending radiograms at no charge for the public. Indicate that you have a “greetings message” from the person signing the message at the place of origin. Ask if they would like to get a pencil and paper to copy the message. Read the message, translating any ARRL Numbered Radiograms into plain language. Solicit a reply, getting the full address and telephone number for new addressee.

·         If undeliverable after 48 hours, you have two choices: 1) Service the message as undeliverable back to the originator and wait for advice; or 2) service the message back indicating no luck so far but that you will continue to attempt delivery. In either case, give sufficient information in the service message to verify that you have the correct addressee information.

·         You are obligated to honor any handling instructions (HX codes) in the preamble of the original message. HXC and HXD require a service message from you to the originator; HXE requires you solicit a reply from the addressee, etc. An ARL SEVEN may also be imbedded in the text.

·         Messages unable to be delivered by telephone may be mailed at your option, with a service message to the originator indicating so. Toll charges are also expended at your option, notwithstanding a handling instruction or lack thereof. Messages may be serviced back as undeliverable simply because there is no outlet station in a position to handle it.

 

SERVICE MESSAGES, SVC

·         A service message is sent between stations relative to message handling or delivery. The letters SVC are placed ahead of the message number. SVC is not a message precedence. The precedence should be the same as that of the message being serviced. Since they affect handling or timely delivery, service messages are generally handled before routine messages. Service messages are framed in the usual manner, and may be booked to a common addressee on manual nets, not booked on digital systems.

·         Example service preamble follows. SVC 16 R W1AW…, sent as: “NR SVC 16 R W1AW…” Although SVC is technically the correct mark of a service message, and it is infrequently used in the NTS today, it is none the less recommended.

·         Service messages are generally given higher precedence in the traffic nets, and every attempt should be made to get them delivered to the message originator. (HXG and other handling instructions mean little.)

 

TYPICAL SERVICE MESSAGES, A FEW EXAMPLES

(Delivered - typical HXC response.)

SVC 1 R W1AW ARL 9 NEWINGTON CT MAR 3

JOHN SMITH W1TX

12 OAK DRIVE

PODUNK MD 21200

410 555 1212

=

ARL FORTY SEVEN 234 JONES

MAR 3 2300 73

=

STEVE WA1W

(Note that UTC is part of the ARL Forty Seven.)

(Undeliverable - bad phone number.)

SVC 2 R W1AW ARL 13 NEWINGTON CT MAR 3

JOHN SMITH W1TX

12 OAK DRIVE

PODUNK MD 21200

410 555 1212

=

ARL SIXTY SEVEN 235 BRADFORD

TEL 410 555 3434 INCORRECT

NO LISTING 73

=

STEVE W1AW

(Undeliverable - no phone - mailed.)

SVC 3 R W1AW ARL 14 NEWINGTON CT MAR 3

JOHN SMITH W1TX

12 OAK DRIVE

PODUNK MD 21200

410 555 1212

=

ARL SIXTY SEVEN 1238 HARRIS

TEL 410 555 3434 INCORRECT

NO LISTING MAILED 73

=

STEVE W1AW

(Not yet delivered - no answer.)

SVC 4 R W1AW ARL 18 NEWINGTON CT MAR 3

JOHN SMITH W1TX

12 OAK DRIVE

PODUNK MD 21200

410 555 1212

=

ARL SIXTY SEVEN 68 BOB

W3YY TEL 410 555 7890

NO ANSWER TWO DAYS X

STILL TRYING 73

=

STEVE W1AW

·         There are many permutations, of course. Generally it is helpful to give the last name of the addressee, or call sign, in addition to the message number, and an explanation of the difficulty sufficient for the originator to understand the problem and perhaps suggest a solution. Place yourself in the position of the originator and try to imagine what you might need to resolve a message delivery problem, and then provide that information.

 

REPORTING, SAR/PSHR

·         Section Traffic Managers in the ARRL Sections appreciate hearing of your traffic handling activity. Consult with the STM regarding the requirements for reporting your traffic count (SAR - station activity report) and public service activity (PSHR - public service honor roll report), including the message format for reporting by radiogram. SAR and PSHR reports are filed monthly with the STM. This information is often posted on the web for the Section.

·         Traffic is counted based upon the interface: 1 point for a message originated on behalf of a third party, an off-the-air activity; 1 point for receiving a radiogram over the air for relay or delivery; 1 point for sending a radiogram to another station over the air for relay or delivery; and 1 point for delivering a radiogram to a third party, an off-the-air activity. Thus it is typical to count 2 points for most radiograms handled. A service message from you to an originator counts only 1 point for its being sent over the air. A message received for your station counts only 1 point if received over the air.

·         Stations are encouraged to apply for the ARRL station appointment as Official Relay Station (ORS). See the ARRL web site, station appointments.

 

2. SENDING THE MESSAGE, CW

Sending protocols are intended to help avoid errors inherent in perception, to help ensure the receiving operator knows what the sending operator is doing at all times and to help ensure the highest possible degree of accuracy and efficiency in radio message transfer. Except for the prosigns and operational words presented herein, the receiving operator copies everything else sent by the sending operator between the framing prosigns. No part of the radiogram may be altered, except the check may be appended with a correction if a discrepancy is discovered during relay.


The resultant copy should always be a replica of the original radiogram in every respect.


“Every single word not absolutely needed may be dispensed with profitably.”
- Operating An Amateur Radio Station (OARS pamphlet), CD-4(1/83), ARRL, Inc., Newington, CT, page17.

 

FRAMES

A receiving operator needs to know where copy should begin and end. This is indicated by the sending operator using certain prosigns to “frame” the individual message, the text, a message book, or individual parts of booked messages. The double-dash (“=” sign, <BT>) is the “break” used to begin and end the text and separate parts of a book.

 



 

·         See Sending Example, Single Message and Sending Example, Booked Messages.

·         The <AR> N (no more messages to follow) is understood to indicate “K” which may be therefore dispensed with. The receiving operator copies all groups sent between the message, part, or text framing prosigns except the prosigns themselves.

·         <AA> (not shown) is used to end Individual lines in the address or multiple line signatures (used as a carriage-return line-feed symbol) except the last line. See the message sending examples.

 

 

PROSIGNS

Prosigns are signals to the receiving operator, are not part of the message and are not written down. Brackets as in <AR> indicate that the code elements are concatenated, that is the letters A and R are sent together with no separating space, all as one character.

PROSIGN

APPLICATION

NR

Introduces formal message copy for single messages. Introduces the message numbers in each variable booked message part.

BOOK OF (quantity)

Introduces formal message copy of a book of messages. The quantity is the number of messages contained in the book, sent as a spelled-out word.

<AA>

Marks the end of each line in the message address or multiple line signatures, except the last; or is used to separate traffic information in a traffic list when checking into a net.

<BT>

(“=”) Marks the start and the end of the text. <BT> also separates parts of booked messages. <BT> does not count in the Check. The <BT> at the start of the text and before “NR” in books is followed by a brief listening pause if not using QSK in case the receiving station needs to interrupt with a fill request.

<AR>

(+ N, B, B1, 1)

Ends record message copy, as in: <AR> N (no more), <AR> B (more) and <AR> B1 (often <AR> 1, one more.), the letters following after a space indicating the number of messages to follow.

<AR> END BOOK <AR>

Ends record copy of a book of messages (followed by N, B, or 1).

<AR> N

For singles and books <AR> N implies “go ahead” to the receiving operator, thus “K” is not needed.

ARL (in check)

Indicates the presence of one or more ARRL numbered radiogram(s) in the text. The letters ARL precede the Check figures separated by a single space, as in: ARL 12.

ARL (in text)

The separate initial group ARL precedes each ARRL Numbered Radiogram in the text, as in:

ARL FIFTY ARL FIFTY SIX NEW LICENSE

OP NOTE

Introductory groups to introduce an Address or Signature op note relative to delivery and reply information respectively.

? (I say again)

(FOR CLARITY)

USE (1): To REPEAT a group or phrase for clarity, send the desired group(s), then send "?”, and then repeat the group(s):

AT THE HAMFEST ? AT THE HAMFEST

? (I say again)

(FOR ERROR)

USE (2): To fix a sending ERROR, send "?", go back to last correctly sent group and resume transmission with that group, even if it is a prosign: AT HAMFEST ? AT THE HAMFEST..., or <BT> HAMFEST ? <BT> THE HAMFEST...

(The use of the “ii” or <hh> to signal an error is not used during record copy. The question mark is reserved for the two purposes above.)

 

OPERATIONAL GROUPS

(Signals used outside the message record copy process. Also see Fill Requests.):

C

Yes, affirmative.

CL

Closing station.

K

Go ahead (over).

N

No, negative.

R

All received and understood. (Does NOT mean “yes” or “affirmative.”)

<SK>

End of shift, no further transmissions to follow.

73

Best regards. Note the plural. (“73’s” is redundant.)

 

 

SENDING SPEED, CLARITY, PAUSES

·         When transmitting the message use clear and properly formatted characters with proper spacing between characters and longer pauses between groups. PAUSES are as much a part of sending the message as the record groups. Use care to transmit the pauses between groups clearly (Glenbrook and Glen Brook are two different places!), and use slightly longer pauses to mark the end of the preamble, the end of address or signature lines, etc. Pauses greatly aid in passing clues to the receiving operator. Use them - they’re free.

·         If a sending error is made, transmit the query signal (“?”), (meaning “I say again”), go back to the last group correctly sent, and resume transmission with that group (which might even be a prosign).

·         It is crucial to transmit the message at a rate which permits solid copy. Rushing the receiving station can introduce errors in message copy, fill requests and unnecessary re-transmission. A good speed starting point is to match the speed used by the receiving station. Honor any requests for slower sending (QRS).

·         Assume pencil copy unless you know or are informed otherwise.

 

·         The objective in handling written radio message traffic is to transmit, copy, relay and deliver the message EXACTLY as it was written by the originator.

 

 

NO EXTRANEOUS WORDS

Avoid sending any words other than the prosigns, operational groups and actual message groups. Extraneous words or characters confuse copy and are counterproductive.

 

“Every single word not absolutely needed may be dispensed with profitably.” (Operating an Amateur Radio Station, p. 17, CD4/1-83, ARRL, Newington, CT.)

 

 

SENDING EXAMPLE, SINGLE MESSAGE

·         The message is transmitted as written with the prosigns NR and <AR> framing the entire message, prosigns <AA> used as needed to mark the ends of multiple lines in the Address or Signature, and prosigns <BT> to frame the text.

·         If there is no address Op Note, send the <BT> after the telephone figures. If there is no signature Op Note, send the <AR> after the signature followed by N (no more), B (more), or B1 (one more, often abbreviated to simply “1”), as appropriate.

·         If the message is a service message (SVC), the NR is sent before the SVC which is then followed by the message number.

·         Transmission of the message begins after the receiving station indicates ready to copy (QRV), and the transmitting station indicates full break-in (QSK) if applicable.

 
(The actual radiogram is shown in bold below.)

 

RX:

QRL? (To check if the frequency is clear when off net, not used on net.)

RX:

W3TX DE W3RX QRV (Note that no “K” is needed.)

TX:

QSK

 

NR 6 R N3XYZ ARL 20 CATONSVILLE MD JUL 24

JOHN A HAM W3XYZ <AA>

107 HOOK ROAD APT 21A <AA>

PHILADELPHIA PA 19034 <AA>

215 555 2345 <AA>

OP NOTE CALL AFTER 6PM

<BT> (If not using QSK, listen for fill requests at this break.)

ARL SIXTY FIVE 11PM JULY/29

USAIR/354 TELL N3ZZZ THANKS FOR

THE GREAT TIME X NEW

TELEPHONE 410 555 2008 REGARDS

<BT>

BILL <AA>

OP NOTE REPLY VIA 3RN MDD TO N3XYZ

<AR> N (Note that no “K” is needed.)

RX:

QSL [73] W3RX (No “K” needed. Fills may be requested before sending this line.)

TX:

[TNX 73] W3TX

 

(The transaction is completed. Stations return to the net or the NCS resumes the net.)

 

 

SENDING EXAMPLES, BOOKED MESSAGES

·         Messages having common parts may optionally be sent “booked” to save transmission time during a message exchange. The resultant copy must be able to be restored to single message replicas of the originals. Booking is an option of the operators.

·         Messages may be booked with various combinations of common addresses, texts and/or signatures. Message numbers are always variable unique parts. Some Preamble parts may be variable except all messages in a given book must be of the same precedence. How to transmit such variable parts is shown below the book sending example.

·         Common texts and signatures are always preceded by and followed by a <BT>. A common address would have only a following <BT> to begin a text, signature, or to separate the common parts from the variable parts.

Given the example messages, two addressees, partly different texts:

5 R W1AW ARL 9 NEWINGTON CT MAY 16

JOHN SMITH
16 OAK RD
PODUNK MD 21200
410 555 1234
=
ARL FIFTY ARL FIFTY SIX
LICENSE RENEWAL X 73
=
RICK

6 R W1AW ARL 9 NEWINGTON CT MAY 16

JAMES DOE
22 ELM STREET
PODUNK MD 21200
410 555 5678
=
ARL FIFTY ARL FIFTY SIX
RECENT UPGRADE X 73
=
RICK

·         Note below the use of the BLANKs as placeholders for the unique words in the different texts. This is done to preserve the validity of the group count (Check) when sending the “common” text. The BLANKs are completed in the unique parts of the transmission. If the texts were identical, no BLANKS would be required. Generally, if more than two or three BLANKS are required, they may be represented by a single BLANK, thus alerting the receiving operator to a longer variable part due to the large Check discrepancy. (See also the section below on Blanks Used in Book Transmission and needed precautions.)

·         The book is transmitted continuously without any response from the receiving station expected unless a QSK interruption for clarification is required. The book is transmitted in full along with any other books or singles dispatched. All are acknowledged at the end of the total traffic exchange.


(The actual radiogram parts are shown in bold below.)

RX:

W3TX DE W3RX QRV

TX:

QSK BOOK OF TWO

 

 

R W1AW ARL 9 NEWINGTON CT MAY 16

 

 

<BT>

(listen for fills if not QSK)

 

 

ARL FIFTY ARL FIFTY SIX

BLANK BLANK X 73

<BT>

RICK

 

 

<BT>

(listen for fills if not QSK)

 

NR

5 JOHN SMITH <AA>

16 OAK RD <AA>
PODUNK MD 21200
<AA>
410 555 1234

 

 

<BT>

(listen for fills if not QSK)

 

 

LICENSE RENEWAL

(text BLANK completed)

 

 

<BT>

(listen for fills if not QSK)

 

NR

6 JAMES DOE <AA>

22 ELM STREET <AA>

PODUNK MD 21200 <AA>

410 555 5678

 

 

<BT>

(listen for fills if not QSK)

 

 

RECENT UPGRADE

(text BLANK completed)

 

 

<AR> END BOOK <AR> N (No “K” needed.)

RX:
TX:

QSL [73] W3RX (No “K” needed.)
[TNX 73] W3TX


A few examples of variable parts containing various parts of the message. Note that the message number is always unique in the booked variable parts:

 

NR

5 MAR 12 JAMES DOE <AA>

22 ELM STREET <AA>

PODUNK MD 21200 <AA>

410 555 5678 <BT>

(Unique date & Address - Filing Time might be included.)

NR

6 HXC MAR 12 JAMES DOE <AA>

22 ELM STREET <AA>

PODUNK MD 21200 <AA>

410 555 5678 <BT>

(Unique Handling Instructions and date, plus Address.)

NR

7 <BT> ARL FORTY SEVEN 23 W3XYZ

MAR 10 2330 <BT>

(Unique text for Addressee. The Check and date may be included as well.)

NR

8 <BT> ARL FORTY SIX <BT> JOHN W3XYZ

(Unique text and signature.)

NR

9 <BT> LICENSE <BT>

(Completed text BLANK from a numbered radiogram - may be more than one group. See use of Blanks below.)

NR

10 CK 9 <BT> GENERAL LICENSE <BT>

(Completed text BLANK from a numbered radiogram where the Check is unique. If this Check is unique, then the Check must be shown in all of the variable parts of this book.)

NR

11 <BT> JOHN W3XYZ <BT>

(Unique signature only.)


Etc. The various parts of the message are transmitted using the <BT> to designate text and signature parts separately from those in a unique Preamble part or Address. Addresses are always treated as a single entity.

 

 

 

BLANKS USED IN BOOK TRANSMISSION

Booking is a transmitting technique used to save time in transmission during a message exchange by avoiding repeating common parts in a number of messages. It is used by agreement between operators and is always optional. (See also the Sending Example, Booked Messages in the section above where BLANK use is show.)

 

The use of BLANKs as a placeholder for text groups must be used with care to avoid ambiguity and shown below, but operators should always remember that booking is optional, and when the use of multiple BLANKs or multiple BLANKs representing multiple groups might become necessary, the resulting confusion must be weighed against the economy of using booking in the first place.

 

BLANKS, ONE FOR ONE SUBSTITUTION:

·         When sending books with a common text except for one or more groups which may be variable, one or more “BLANK” groups may be used as place holders in the fixed text to indicate each of the groups to be provided in the variable message parts later.

·         With this method the “BLANKs” provide for a group count in the common text which agrees with the Preamble Check. This is a signal to the receiving operator that there will be a group for group correlation in the variable text for the contents of each “BLANK” sent later. This one for one substitution defines the variable text as having only one group representing each “BLANK” used in the common text, hence there is no ambiguity between the groups transmitted in the variable text.

·         These “BLANKs” may be associated with plain text or with ARRL Numbered Radiograms, or both; and do not always represent adjacent text groups. Note that the group “BLANK” used as a placeholder here is not the same as the blank shown in the list of ARRL Numbered Radiograms in which it is permissible to have more than one group sent to complete the Radiogram’s information.


EXAMPLE, COMMON TEXT, check ARL 8:

...

(Address) <BT>

ARL FIFTY THREE BLANK ARL FIFTY SIX BLANK <BT> (SIG) <BT>

and in the variable parts:

NR 12 (Address) <BT> LETTER LICENSE <BT>

NR 13 (Address) <BT> PACKAGE APPOINTMENT <AR> END BOOK <AR> N


The operator knows from the Check that each BLANK stands for one group, hence there is no ambiguity in understanding the two groups given in the unique texts for each message. If one or both ARRL Radiogram had a two or three group variable, one BLANK would be used for each group. Since the number of BLANKs used maintains agreement with the Check, there will be no ambiguity in understanding the variable parts, as in:

 

Check ARL 9:

...

(Address) <BT>

ARL FIFTY THREE BLANK BLANK ARL FIFTY SIX BLANK <BT> (SIG) <BT>

and in the variable parts:

NR 12 (Address) <BT> KIND LETTER LICENSE <BT>

NR 13 (Address) <BT> BOOK PACKAGE APPOINTMENT <AR> END BOOK <AR> N

 

·         Multiple “BLANKs” are permitted, each in the position in the common text of the group to be given later. They correspond exactly, one for one in order, to the groups given in the variable text parts.

·         Generally, if more than two consecutive “BLANKs” are required, a single BLANK may be used to represent more than one group, but with care to avoid ambiguity. (See the next section below regarding Blanks, Single Placeholder for Multiple Groups.)

 

BLANKS, SINGLE PLACEHOLDER FOR MULTIPLE GROUPS:

·         When sending books with a common text except for a number of groups which may be variable, and more than two consecutive “BLANKs” would be required as single group placeholders, it is permissible to use a single placeholder for all the variable groups even though the common text will not have a group count which agrees with the Preamble Check. The receiving operator will recognize the disparity and watch for the number of groups used in the variable texts. (When parts of a book are reformed into single messages the resultant group counts for the texts for each message must agree with the given Preamble Check.)

·         Such single placeholder “BLANKs” may be associated with plain text, or with ARRL Numbered Radiograms, or both.

·         CAUTION: See the next part below concerning ambiguity in completing multiple BLANKs for multiple groups in the transmission. There comes a time when the economy of booking complex texts with BLANKs is not worth the possible resultant confusion.


EXAMPLE COMMON TEXT TO DIFFERENT ADDRESSEES
, Check ARL 8:

...

<BT> ARL FORTY SEVEN BLANK <BT> (SIG) <BT>

and in the variable parts:

NR 14 (Address 1) <BT> 201 W1AW MAR 15 2330 <BT>

NR 15 (Address 2) <BT> 127 W1AW MAR 16 0745 <AR> END BOOK <AR> N

 

EXAMPLE COMMON TEXT TO THE SAME ADDRESSEE, Check ARL 8:

...

(Address) <BT>

ARL FORTY SEVEN BLANK <BT> (SIG) <BT>

and in the variable parts:

NR 14 <BT> 305 W1AW MAR 15 2340 <BT>

NR 15 <BT> 307 W1AW MAR 16 0755 <AR> END BOOK <AR> N

 

BLANKS, BLOCK OF TEXT TO REDUCE AMBIGUITY:

·         CAUTION: If more than one “BLANK” standing for multiple groups is used in a common text, care must be taken to ensure that there will be no ambiguity in the variable texts given later as to where the information from one “BLANK” ends and the next begins. Adding an “X” or other marker between groups, not in the original messages, is not permitted to separate such groups. Thus if ambiguity would result by using more than one such “BLANK” placeholder, one or both in place of multiple groups, it would be wise to avoid booking the message transmission in the first place. Confusion could result in the attempt to save time. Alternatively, the sending operator may use a single “BLANK” for a block of text containing the variable groups and fixed intervening text as shown below.


EXAMPLE COMMON TEXT TO DIFFERENT ADDRESSEES
, Check ARL 20:

where there is different ARL SIXTY FIVE and ARL EIGHT information to be sent:

...

<BT> ARESMAT TEAMS SCHEDULED TO LEAVE TONIGHT X ARL SIXTY FIVE BLANK ARL EIGHT BLANK 73 <BT> (SIG) <BT>

and where there would be ambiguity in completing the BLANKs in the variable parts, the transmission may be revised to:

...

<BT> ARESMAT TEAMS SCHEDULED TO LEAVE TONIGHT X ARL SIXTY FIVE BLANK 73 <BT> (SIG) <BT>

and in the variable parts with the complete ARL EIGHT components included:

NR 14 (Address 1) <BT> STL MAR 10 1330 UA 701 ARL EIGHT 6 <BT>

NR 15 (Address 2) <BT> BWI MAR 10 1745 NW 15 ARL EIGHT 10 <AR> END BOOK

<AR> N

 

·         The economy of booking in this manner may only become valuable when a large number of such messages and their texts need to be sent. For a few such messages, sending the messages as singles may lead to less confusion.

 

 

QSK OPERATION, INTERRUPTING

·         When the sending station is operating full break-in (QSK), the receiving operator can interrupt at any time.

·         If the receiving operator misses a group it may send the last group copied, or a fragment sufficient to identify a group, and the sending operator will resume with the next group, or the group containing the fragment, respectively.

Examples, QSK (transmission indented to convey timing):

1) Continuing after group sent:

TX:

TO SEE YOU AT

RX:

 

YOU (YOU copied-TX continues with next group)

TX:

 

AT HAMFEST...

2) Repeating group containing fragment:

TX:

TO SEE YOU AT HAMFE...

RX:

 

HAM (in middle of word-partial group repeat signal)

TX:

 

 HAMFEST...

3) Repeating group containing fragment:

TX:

TO SEE YOU AT HAMFEST

RX:

 

HAM (at end of word-partial group repeat signal)

TX:

 

HAMFEST...

4) Correcting and continuing:

TX:

TO SEE YOU AT

RX:

 

YOUR (error in request)

TX:

 

YOU AT HAMFEST... (YOU repeated)

QSK Tips:

·         Using full break-in QSK operation in CW traffic handling is customary.

·         The QSK interrupt method should be used immediately when copy of a group is missed or uncertain. It is poor practice to interrupt and force the sending operator to back up to earlier parts of the message.

·         If there is some other reason for interrupting, the receiving station may send <AS> (wait). When ready, a specific group(s) to begin with may be sent (from anywhere in the message), in which case transmission is resumed after the specified group(s). The receiving station may also send a message part name (PBL, ADR, TXT, SIG, etc.) in which case transmission resumes with that part.

·         On PTT/VOX operation asking for fills from any previous part of the message is acceptable after the expected <BT> break at the start of a text, the <BT> before a booked message number, or at the end of the message(s), using the standard formal fill requests.

·         See Fill Requests.

 

 

JUMPING AHEAD

(Assuming QSK operation.)

·         A receiving operator, upon recognizing the addressee, may tell the sending station to go directly to the text by sending <BT> (if the TX station is using QSK). The sender then transmits <BT> and sends the text. If, however, there is an address op note, the sending operator should send that op note before continuing with <BT> and the text.

·         A receiving operator, recognizing a “standard message” from an originator, might interrupt the sending with “SIG” (if the TX station is using QSK) as soon as the address is received and the text is recognized. The sending operator skips the text, sends <BT>, and follows with the signature.

·         If the receiving station interrupts with a QSL as soon as the text is recognized it is indicating it knows both the text and signature, however the sending operator should send the signature and signature op note, if an op note is present, when the op note is not “standard” for that message. If in doubt the sending operator should at least confirm the receiving station has the op note.

 

·         If QSK is not being used the SIG, or QSL may be sent by the receiving operator at the first <BT> listening pause introducing the text.

 

 

FILL REQUESTS

·         When using QSK the receiving operator can request repeats at any time as shown above. If additional fills are needed, or when operating non-QSK, fills may be requested at the first text frame <BT> or at the end of the message. The receiving operator may ask for repeats of specific groups or part names, or may request confirmation of groups copied. This is done with a simple declarative statement such as “WA THE,” or “ST ADDR,” etc., or “CFM HAMFEST.” The interrogative is implied - no “?” is sent.

·         The sending operator repeats only the group(s) requested or confirms the copy given.

·         Notice that “K” is not used in such exchanges. The receiving operator may make an additional request without sending “R” or “K”.

·         When all fills and/or confirmations are satisfied, the receiving operator may then send “K” to tell the sending operator to resume the transmission of the message(s).


The Fill Requests follow:

GROUPS

“[IN (part)] WA (group(s))"

(WA = “word after”)

 

“[IN (part)] WB (group(s))"

(WB = “word before”)

 

“[IN (part)] AA (group(s))"

(AA = “all after”)

 

“[IN (part)] AB (group(s))"

(AB = “all before”)

 

“[IN (part)] BN (group A) es (group B)"

(BN = “between”, es = “and”)

 

·         The optional “[IN (part)]” refers to the PBL, CK, ADEE, ST ADDR, CITY, CITY ORIG, STN ORIG, ZIP, TEL, TXT, SIG, OP NOTE, or whatever part of the message to which you wish to direct the attention of the operator for the fill request. The “[IN (part)]” is not used unless necessary for clarity in the request.

PART NAME

To request repeat of a part of the message ask “(part name)", such as PBL, NR, PREC, HX, STN ORIG, CK, CITY ORIG, DT, LAST NAME ADEE, ST ADDR, CITY, ZIP, TEL, ADDR OP NOTE, TXT (entire), SIG, SIG OP NOTE, etc. Simply send ZIP, etc., and the sending station will repeat that part of the message specified.

CONFIRM

To verify a group or part ask: “CFM (group(s))";

The affirmative response is "CFM,” otherwise a correction is sent by the transmitting station by repeating the correct group(s).

 

 

FILL RESPONSES

The shortest and most efficient method is preferred and is shown here. Given a message text and signature as follows:
“… ARRIVED 6PM X WILL BE ARRIVING HOME NEXT WEEK <BT> LLOYD <AR> N”

STN

FILL REQUEST (1)

STN

RESPONSE (2)

RX:

WA HOME

TX:

NEXT

RX:

WB BE

TX:

WILL

RX:

BN ARRIVING es WEEK

TX:

HOME NEXT

RX:

CFM HOME

TX:

CFM

RX:

CFM THIS WEEK

TX:

NEXT WEEK

RX:

IN TXT AA HOME, (Use of [IN (PART)])

TX:

NEXT WEEK

RX:

SIG, (Use of a PART NAME)

TX:

LLOYD

RX:

K

TX:

transmission continues

1.

The request may contain one or more groups as required for clarity. For example, if there is more than one “X” in the message text, give the group before the “X” and the “X” to reduce the ambiguity.

2.

Transmit requested group(s). There is no need to repeat the request. There is no need to transmit additional groups before and after the group(s) requested unless there is some need for particular emphasis or clarity by framing. Simply give the receiving operator what is asked for. Notice that “K” is not required in such exchanges except to resume the exchange.

 

RESOLVING A CHECK DISCREPANCY - THE QTB METHOD

·         Check discrepancies might be due to a missed counting error on the TX station’s copy of the message, a TX station’s transmission error, or an RX station’s copy error. The RX station may ask for a confirmation of the check, or ask for fills of groups in doubt as above, but should avoid fishing around for errors.

·         The RX station may confirm the check, or if confident it copied it correctly, may immediately proceed with a first-initial check - the QTB method of resolving the discrepancy. In fact, either station that first becomes confident that there is a check discrepancy may initiate the sending of the first character of each group of the text.

·         If RX sends, the TX station makes note of where there is a discrepancy in the letter sequence, and then re-sends sufficient groups to correct the copy. If TX sends, the RX station asks for a fill covering the discrepancy. This process is efficient and most often saves much time compared to fishing around for text errors by trial and error.

·         Do not re-send whole parts or the entire message unless specifically requested to do so as a last resort.

·         If the text is confirmed and the check is still in error, AMEND the check with the “/”, as in “13/12”, or “12/ARL 12”, or “ARL 12/12”, or “ARL 13/ARL 14”, etc.

 

Examples: (RX is the receiving operator, TX the sending operator, assuming QSK.)

Given a CK 9 message text and signature:

<BT> ARRIVED 6PM X WILL BE ARRIVING HOME NEXT WEEK <BT>  LLOYD <AR> N

 

1) The receiving station initiating the QTB method:

RX:

QTB A 6 X W B A N W <AR>, (the H for HOME missing)

TX:

ARRIVING HOME NEXT, (TX frames HOME so RX can easily locate the group.)

RX:

QSL W3RX

·         If the RX operator was using QSK, the TX station could have corrected the missed HOME as soon as it was detected in the RX station’s QTB letter series.

 

2) Or, if the TX station initiated the first initials transmission

TX:

QTB A 6 X W B A H N W <AR>

RX:

WA ARRIVING, (RX noting the missing H in its copy.)

TX:

HOME

RX:

QSL W3RX

·         If the TX operator was using QSK, the RX station could have interrupted for the missed HOME as soon as it was detected in the TX station’s QTB letter series.

 

3. NET OPERATIONS, CW

In the examples given in this section, items in parentheses ( ) are completed by the station sending. Items in brackets [] are optional.

 

ID REQUIREMENTS

·         Give your full call sign when checking into the net and when excused directly from the net. Give your full call sign after making comments, other contributions to the net and exchanging traffic - in other words, at the end of transactions.

·         Suffixes may be used to seek permission to transmit. Single letters (T, E, or G) may be used to acknowledge leaving the net when dispatched to a stack. No response is expected from individual stations excused en-mass by list or by closing the net.

 

 

CHECKING IN, LISTING TRAFFIC

·         Listen to the NCS. Open net calls (for any stations) or specific net calls will be made from time to time. When the appropriate call is made for your category, check into the net with the following information sequence shown in the table. List all your business at the first check-in opportunity.

·         Liaisons on most CW nets are single responders and check in when the liaison is called for by net name or call sign. The NCS may call a series of liaisons following a single QNA at the start of a list, usually at the top of the net. Such liaisons check in with their full check-in sequence shown below.

·         Multiple liaison responders (known in advance) or multiple responders to open or specific net calls check in using the two-step single letter method. Each station sends a single letter (unique if possible, often the first letter of the suffix), waits for the NCS to repeat the letter to acknowledge, then the station checks in with the full check-in sequence shown below.

·         Other stations checking into the net use the two-step single letter method; hence, once the NCS recognizes their letter in an open net call, they become single responders. Thus each station checking in does so by giving their full traffic list, listing all their business at this first opportunity to check in.


The Traffic List Sequence:

[CALL] [JOBS] [ASSIGNMENTS] [TRAFFIC STATUS] [TRAFFIC LIST] [COMMENT]

 

[CALL]

[JOBS]

[ASSIGNMENTS]

[TRAFFIC STATUS]

[TRAFFIC LIST]

[COMMENT]

(full call sign)

Such as alternate net control, etc.

Liaison assignments, using “FROM” and “TO” net name as required for clarity;

1) QRU, (<AR> is not required unless a comment is added);
or 2;

(none)


Plus any info needed by the NCS. If so, then end with <AR>

 

 

then add traffic status 1 or 2:

2) QTC…

Give full
TRAFFIC LIST...

Plus any info needed by the NCS.

 

 

 

 

End last item with <AR>.

Traffic List Examples (items in brackets [] are optional):

No traffic:

W1AW (ANC) [FROM] 3RN QRU

W1AW (ANC) [FROM] 3RN QRU CAN QSP PODUNK <AR>

With Traffic:

W1AW (ANC) [FROM] 3RN QTC PODUNK 1… PODUNK HOLLOW 2… QNC 1… BOOK OF FIVE PODUNK HEIGHTS 3 PODUNK CITY 2…  WORDS FOR NET… WORDS FOR W1XYZ… CAN QSP NEWINGTON <AR>

 

·         Traffic is customarily listed in order as QTC, singles, QNCs, books, words for net, words for stations, and the optional comment, always ending with <AR>.

·         On Section or Local NTS nets it is customary to assist traffic assignment by giving the telephone area code and exchange for listed traffic, as in: PODUNK 1 TEL 410 555; and if two or more messages are listed for the same location: PODUNK HOLLOW 2 TEL 410 555 AND 410 556.

·         Messages for amateur stations may be listed using the call sign as the destination (if the amateur frequents or is known to the net - the town added if not). The comment “if he/she checks in” may be added if you prefer to cancel the message if the station does not appear on the net. Service or reply messages to well known sources of mass mailing traffic typically are addressed to their call sign, but it is recommended that the city, state and zip code be provided to aid routing through the digital networks.

·         On Section and Local NTS nets, traffic for out-of-Section is listed for the next higher net by net name, or simply “through.” Messages for the coverage area of the net are listed by town and phone area and exchange. Messages listed on a Local net may be listed the same way, but may need to be routed to a Section net to reach an outlet. The NCS can advise or ask for suggested routing. Refer to the Section’s net structure.

·         Booked messages may also be listed to aid in dispatching: BOOK OF FIVE PODUNK HEIGHTS 3 PODUNK CITY 2, phone information added as necessary as above, and after all the single messages are listed. This allows the NCS to dispatch multiple stations to copy the book.

·         If there might be ambiguity in the sequence, the separator <AA> may be used between listings (books are usually listed after singles to avoid such ambiguity and the <AA> is not used between parts of a book listing).

·         Comments such as CAN QSP NEWINGTON, or simply QSP NEWINGTON, are related to information which might be required by or useful to the NCS, such as offering to QSP traffic already listed on the net. Words for the net or with the NCS are listed separately as traffic, as in WDS NET, or WDS NCS.

·         QRU status without a comment does not require an <AR>. If a comment is added, it must end with an <AR>. No “K” is used.

·         A traffic list following QTC is always ended with <AR>, with or without a comment. No “K” is used.

 

CHECKING INTO THE NET:

 

SINGLE RESPONDERS, single liaisons or stations called specifically:

NCS:

[QNA] 1RN

STN:

W1AW 1RN QRU (K or <AR> not required); or

W1AW 1RN QTC PODUNK 1 WDS W1XYZ <AR>

NCS:

W1AW <AS> (Acknowledging the station and asking it to stand by, or the NCS may dispatch the station to pass its traffic.)

 

MULTIPLE RESPONDERS are possible on net calls such as open net calls (stations with or without traffic), those for liaisons where more than one is expected, or in calls where numerous stations might respond, such as a call for stations with suffixes beginning with ALFA through MIKE, etc. A mix of stations with and without traffic checking in is shown below.

The “two-step, single letter” check-in method:

NCS:

(net name) QNI

STN1:

STN2:

STN3:

X

Y

Z

NCS:

X

STN1:

W3XX QRU (no K or <AR> required); or

W3XX QTC PODUNK 3 WDS W3YY <AR> (the traffic list)

NCS:

W3XX <AS> (The NCS acknowledges the station and asks it to stand by, or may dispatch it with another station to handle its traffic. The <AS> is a transaction ending prosign and the NCS may then leave a gap for other stations to try their single letter again (tail ending), or the NCS may make another open net call.)

 

NET OPERATING PROTOCOLS

PERMISSION TO TRANSMIT

·         On a directed traffic net the stations should transmit only with permission from the NCS. This may be done in response to net calls by the NCS for general check-ins, calls for specific assistance, for relays, to respond to traffic offers; by NCS calls to specific stations, or following a granted station’s request to transmit. The NCS may ask for a station by call sign, as in “W3RX?” which is an invitation to respond.

·         For stations already checked into the net, the permission to transmit is obtained by the station sending its call sign suffix, waiting for the NCS to repeat the suffix to acknowledge the request, and then transmitting the request, information or relay, etc.

·         Failure to have NCS permission to transmit can quickly lead to disorder on directed nets. Listen to the NCS and avoid the impulse to jump in without permission.

TRANSACTIONS

·         Business on a directed traffic net generally consists of “transactions,” i.e. exchanges between the NCS and a station or between two or more stations on the net with NCS permission. The NCS also makes open and specific net calls from time to time, checks stations into the net, assigns traffic to recipient stations, dispatches traffic, and excuses stations.

·         There are generally key words used to conclude such transactions such as checking in a station by the NCS sending the call sign and asking the station to “<AS>” (wait); or a traffic dispatching operation to an off-net frequency which is concluded by the stations dispatched acknowledging “T” (“E” or “G”), in the order dispatched; or an exchange of traffic or information on the net concluded by the stations signing their full call signs. Listen to the NCS and wait for any transactions in progress to be completed before breaking into the net for any reason (except for an emergency or urgent need to gain the attention of the NCS such as to catch an excused or dispatched station before it leaves the net frequency).

TAIL-ENDING

·         Most NCS operators will accept tail-ending calls. When a transaction is completed on the net frequency a new station checking in (single letter method), a station on the net requesting permission to transmit (suffix), or a station returning from off frequency, can make its call to gain the attention of the NCS. Thus new check-ins, net stations and returning stations do not necessarily have to wait for the NCS to make an open or specific net call to have an opportunity to make the attempt. However, if the NCS makes a specific net call, such stations should pause briefly to allow the specific responder(s) time to make their call before tail-ending an attempt. For example, if the NCS calls for a station in Podunk, a pause should be given for any Podunk responder before a new station, net station, or returning station should make their call.

·         An NCS should leave gaps between transactions to accommodate such tail-ending calls. No gap is a signal that the NCS is not accepting tail-ending calls.

 

 

NET DUTIES AND FORMAT

·         NCS DUTIES include calling the net, checking in stations, listing traffic, assigning traffic, dispatching traffic, excusing stations, closing the net and filing a net report for each session run.

·         Consult the Net Manager for the suggested net format and other policies. The net format is a style or sequence of operations customized for that particular net and is a separate policy from the standard operating protocols presented in this document.

 

 

OTHER MODES, BANDS

·         The NCS may dispatch stations to exchange traffic using other modes such as Winlink 2000 radio-email, packet radio, RTTY, PSK-31, APRS, or other means. The NCS may also dispatch stations to other bands or modes such as to the phone segments or other bands better suited to the propagation between the stations or band crowding conditions. HF ground wave or simplex VHF/UHF may be used.

·         The objective of directed traffic nets is to move the maximum amount of traffic in the shortest possible time. Other activities on the net are simply overhead in performing that task.

·         Separate nets may be set up for groups of stations with common traffic exchanging requirements or for welfare traffic distribution, etc. Section plans generally call for liaisons between all nets operating in support of an emergency response. The NCS will explore all possible paths for moving traffic based upon available resources.

 

 

DISPATCHING TRAFFIC

·         Note that in each of the dispatch line sequences the syntax is self completing, thus dispensing with the need to send “K” after the commands. This dispatch sequence is short and efficient, and is expected by the stations. Repeating parts of the dispatch may cause confusion and premature acknowledgments from the stations. When excusing stations in advance as they are sent off net the excusing syntax must follow immediately after the main part of the dispatch syntax to avoid premature acknowledgments.

·         The NCS solicits and assigns receiving stations for listed traffic, and then may instruct stations to pass traffic immediately or at a later time, either on the net or off frequency.

·         A “stack” is a frequency off of the net on which two stations are engaged in a traffic exchange. A third station may be dispatched to get in line to wait to call one of those stations when it becomes available.

·         “HR” is used as the (freq) in the syntax for dispatching exchanges on the net.  The “UP 6” examples for the stack destination below could obviously be a specific HF frequency, or any other location, band, or mode required.

 

1) DISPATCHING TWO STATIONS:

NCS:

W3RX W3TX UP 6 PODUNK 3, or

W3RX W3TX HR PODUNK 3

·         The NCS usually addresses the RX station first, TX second, but may reverse the order if RX is not being heard well.

·         Stations acknowledge departing by sending “T”, “E”, or “G” in the order in which they were dispatched. The receiving station checks the stack frequency and makes the first call to initiate the exchange. If the assigned frequency is busy the RX station moves away from the net to the first clear frequency. If stations do not make contact within 30 seconds they both return to net and report the failure.

2) QNQ, Adding one waiting station to a stack:

NCS:

W3XX QNQ UP 6 W3RX PODUNK 2

W3XX waits up 6 for W3RX to finish then calls W3RX to gain control of the stack.

3) QNQ, Adding a second waiting station at the stack, order given (use with care):

NCS:

W3YY QNQ UP 6 W3RX AFTER W3XX PODUNK 1

W3YY waits up 6 for W3XX to finish then calls W3RX to gain control of the stack.

4) QNV, Checking copy before departing, conditional dispatch:

NCS:

W3RX QNV W3TX UP 6 PODUNK 3

W3RX calls W3TX on the net, and, if copy is good, both move to the stack.

5) QNB, Dispatching a relay station to assist in the exchange:

NCS:

W3RLY QNB W3RX W3TX UP 6 PODUNK 2

All 3 stations acknowledge, “T”, in order, and W3RLY calls the stations and mediates the exchange at the stack frequency.

 

·         The NCS may elect to dispatch a station as soon as it checks into the net without acknowledging it except by implication, as in:

6) IMMEDIATE DISPATCH (skipping the QNI acknowledgment):

STN:

X

NCS:

X

STN:

W3XX QTC PODUNK 3 <AR>

NCS:

W3RX W3XX UP 6 PODUNK 3; (RX was already checked in and handles Podunk.)

RX:

T

XX:

T

7) Or to call for a liaison or outlet to handle the listed QTC:

STN:

X

NCS:

X

STN:

W3XX QTC PODUNK 3 <AR>

NCS:

W3RX? (soliciting the known outlet for Podunk)

STN:

W3RX QRU

NCS:

W3RX W3XX UP 6 PODUNK 3;

RX:

T

XX:

T

·         The immediate dispatch may also be used to re-dispatch a returning station, or excuse a returning station with the normal acknowledgment of the return skipped.

 

8) SPLIT DISPATCH (Skipping acknowledgment, interrupting the dispatch, soliciting the outlet, and then completing the two part dispatch.)

STN:

X

NCS:

X

STN:

W3XX QTC PODUNK 3 <AR>

NCS:

W3RX...;(RX not yet checked in but NCS knows W3RX handles Podunk.)

RX:

W3RX QRU, or T; (W3RX is QRU. If RX had QTC, NCS would abort to an immediate dispatch.)

NCS:

... W3XX UP 6 PODUNK 3; (completing the W3RX W3XX UP 6 dispatch)

RX:

T

TX:

T

·         Technically the call for W3RX without the query violates the specific net call syntax, but experienced stations recognize what the NCS is doing here. This is a combination of both the immediate and split technique, both stations being acknowledged only by implication.  This method should be used with care.

 

9) BOOKS TO MULTIPLE STATIONS: The NCS may dispatch a number of stations to receive parts of a book from a TX station at a stack or on net frequency (freq. = HR). The dispatch:

NCS:

W3TX W3XA (dest [qty]) W3XB (dest [qty]), etc., (freq) BOOK [OF (qty)]

 

Or if the stations know the assignments:

 

W3TX W3XA W3XB (freq) BOOK [OF (qty)]

STNS:

Each acknowledges “T” in the order dispatched if dispatched off net.

·         The TX station initiates contact with the stations on the net or on the stack frequency and assumes the role of a net control for transmission of the book, polling all stations QRV and, after the exchanges, requesting acknowledgment.

 

AVOID INTERRUPTING THE DISPATCH

·         The practice of sending a “dit” after your call sign during a dispatch is often used on slow or training nets to let the NCS know you are paying attention. This practice is dispensed with on Section level and higher CW traffic nets, and is considered an interruption.

 

 

EXCUSING STATIONS

EXCUSING A STATION ON NET

NCS:

W3RX [TNX 73] QNX (Note the farewells precede the QNX, the command ending syntax - no “K” is required. If groups are added after QNX then a “K” would be required at the end.)

STN:

[73] W3RX

 

EXCUSING STATIONS IN ADVANCE

Stations may be EXCUSED in advance from the net in the dispatch command when being dispatched off frequency for exchanges. The net control will add the excusing commands at the end of the dispatch line, as in:

NCS:

W3RX W3TX UP 6 TOWSON 3 W3RX QNX

W3RX W3TX UP 6 TOWSON 3 W3TX QNX

W3RX W3TX UP 6 TOWSON 3 BOTH QNX

W3XYZ QNQ UP 6 W3TX PODUNK 2 W3XYZ QNX

W3XYZ QNQ UP 6 W3TX PODUNK 2 W3TX QNX

W3XYZ QNQ UP 6 W3TX PODUNK 2 BOTH QNX

·         Stations excused at the dispatch sign out with full call sign. If the contact station is to be excused, the dispatched station relays that information to the station at the stack.

·         Note that only the dispatched station and/or its contact on the stack are excused in advance in this dispatch. The other station already at the stack is not so excused since contact with that station is not assured or customary. That station would return to the net to be excused, or already may have been excused in advance.

·         Note that, as in dispatches, the line syntax is self completing thus dispensing with the need to send “K” after the QNX.

 

 

 

4. THE MESSAGE EXCHANGES

The primary business on directed traffic nets is to move traffic (although some special nets may also interweave social exchanges between traffic dispatches, etc.).

 

In the following examples, RX is the receiving station, TX the sender. Unless instructed otherwise the sending station passes all the dispatched traffic with only the customary listening pauses. Fills may be requested at those pauses. Thus a series of singles and/or booked messages is sent continuously with only listening pauses for fills and then the entire series is acknowledged at the end. When finished the receiving station clears any remaining fills and then acknowledges all the traffic with a “QSL” and ID at the end.

 

Items in parentheses ( ) are completed by the station sending. Items in brackets [] are optional.

 

THE TWO STATION EXCHANGE

ON NET, RX addressed first by NCS:

NCS:

W3RX W3TX HR PODUNK 2

RX:

[W3TX W3RX] QRV (Note: The RX station at this point may omit the QRV to force the TX station to ask QRV? This may be done if the RX station is not sure if it can hear the TX station well.)

TX:

[QSK] NR... (sends message 1)... <AR> 1

 

NR... (sends message 2)... <AR> N

RX:

QSL [73] W3RX

TX:

[TNX 73] W3TX; and the NCS resumes control.

 

Or, ON NET, TX addressed first (used when the RX may not be hearing the NCS well):

NCS:

W3TX W3RX HR PODUNK 2

TX:

[W3RX W3TX] QRV?

RX:

[W3RX] QRV

TX:

[QSK] NR... (sends message 1)... <AR> 1

 

NR... (sends message 2)... <AR> N

RX:

QSL [73] W3RX

TX:

[TNX 73] W3TX; and the NCS resumes control.

 

OFF NET, TWO STATIONS, moving to a “stack” frequency.

The RX station checks the frequency and initiates the call to establish the stack frequency. If the assigned frequency is busy the RX station moves in a direction away from the net to the first available clear frequency to initiate the stack.

NCS:

W3RX W3TX UP 6 PODUNK 2

RX:

T

TX:

T (acknowledging in the order dispatched), and at the stack:

RX:

QRL?… then, if clear, W3TX W3RX QRV

 

(Note: As above, the RX station may omit the QRV to force the TX station to ask in cases where the RX station is not sure it can copy the TX station.)

TX:

[W3TX] [QSK] NR... (sends message 1) ... <AR> 1

 

NR... (sends message 2) ... <AR> N

RX:

QSL [73] W3RX

TX:

[TNX 73] W3TX (Both stations pause for a moment on frequency. Other stations may have been dispatched to the stack to call one of the two for additional exchanges. A missed connection can cause a lot of wasted net time. If no calls are heard in a few seconds, both stations return to the net.)

ON OR OFF NET:

·         If TX is operating QSK, all messages are sent continuously. The receiving station may interrupt at any time for repeats. The RX station acknowledges all the messages after they have all been sent.

·         If not operating QSK the TX station pauses to listen for fills or interruptions after each <BT> beginning a text and after the <BT> before each book variable NR. If there are no fills required there is no response from the RX station until acknowledgment after all messages have been sent.

·         Note that “K” is not needed during the exchanges. The <AR> is used as the end of the message frame begun with NR.

 

 

RETURNING TO THE NET

FAILURE

If the stations fail to make contact within about half a minute or are unable to complete the assigned exchanges:

STN:

Check back into the net by sending “(full call sign) no joy”, “(full call sign) no (suffix)”, “(full call sign) lost (suffix)]”, etc., if the assignment failed. An explanation may be added, or the NCS will ask for one.

 

SUCCESS

If the stations complete the assigned exchanges:

STN:

Check back into the net by sending suffix if the assignment was completed. NCS will acknowledge the return by simply repeating the suffix.
* It is also the responsibility of all stations involved in off-net exchanges to advise the net control of any correction in the number of messages passed, and of the TX station to re-list with the NCS any messages not passed.

LIAISONS:

Liaisons returning from other nets check back in by sending “(full call sign) [from] (net name)” followed by either “QRU,” or “QTC” plus the traffic list.

 

WORDS FOR THE NET, INFORMAL ANNOUNCEMENTS

NCS:

W3TX WDS NET

The NCS needs to dispatch such words when all stations are on the net frequency. The polling of stations is usually dispensed with.

TX:

[QSK]... (sends words)...  <AR> [W3TX]

Either the TX station, or the NCS, should ask if there are any fills required or any stations wishing to respond to a query in the words.

NCS:

Resumes the net after fills.

 

QNC, FORMAL MESSAGE TO ALL NET STATIONS ON NET

·         The QNC process is similar to the Bulletin process below except the formal message is for all net stations to copy.

NCS:

Either the NCS or the TX station must poll all net stations QRV.

W3TX QNC

TX:

[W3TX] [QSK] QNC NR … (sends message) ... <AR> N

Either the NCS or the TX station must poll all net stations for fills and a QSL on the message - a formal message transmission as opposed to transmitting informal words to all stations on the net. After acknowledgments, TX signs, W3TX.

NCS:

Resumes the net.

 

BULLETIN(S) TO MULTIPLE STATIONS, ON AND OFF NET

BULLETIN: Bulletins are a book of message(s) with one message number addressed to multiple recipients such as all American Red Cross liaisons or EOCs, etc. The TX station assumes the roll of NCS on the net or stack frequency.

·         Items in RED for use off net. If the traffic is dispatched on net FREQ becomes HR.

·         The TX station checks the frequency and initiates the call to establish the stack frequency. If the assigned frequency is busy the TX station moves in a direction away from the net to the first available clear frequency to initiate the stack. The TX station assumes the roll of NCS on the frequency.

·         Items in parentheses ( ) are completed by the station sending. Items in brackets [] are optional.

NCS:

W3TX (full calls of RX1, RX2, etc.) (FREQ) (BOOK [to group])

TX:

TX G;

RX #s:

(RX 1) G; (RX 2) G; etc., in the order dispatched;

TX:

QRL?… then:

TX:

(RX 1) QRV? (suffixes or tactical call signs may be used)

RX1

QRV

TX:

(RX 2) QRV?

RX2

QRV (TX polls until all RX stations ready.)

TX:

[W3TX] NR... (sends message)... <AR> N (Multiple messages to the same addressee list may be transmitted in sequence.)

TX:

(RX 1)? (suffixes or tactical call signs may be used)

RX1

QSL (RX1 full call sign)

TX:

(RX 2)?

RX2

QSL (RX2 full call sign) (TX polls until all RX stations acknowledge*.)

TX:

[TU 73] W3TX Fills may be settled with each recipient station as it is polled at the conclusion of the transmission sequence.

·         It is the responsibility of the TX station to note which addressed recipients received the message(s) and to service back to the originator any messages not delivered to the intended recipient list.

·         If no calls are heard all stations return to the net. (Other stations may be dispatched to the stack to call one of the stations involved for additional exchanges.)

·         It is also the responsibility of all stations involved in off-net exchanges to advise the net control of any correction in the number of messages passed, and of the TX station to re-list with the NCS any messages not passed.

 

 

BOOK TO MULTIPLE STATIONS, ON AND OFF NET

Common parts to all stations, variable parts to different receiving stations. This also includes bulletins with variable message numbers for each recipient station. The NCS has already assigned the messages to a specific list of recipients following the listing process. The TX station should make note of the call signs assigned to receive each particular address target, ask the NCS which stations will take each target address, or the NCS may indicate the target addresses to be taken by the stations during the dispatch sequence. This example shows a book for two stations. Each recipient, however, may be sent multiple variable message parts and there may be more than two recipient stations. Off net the TX station finds the clear frequency, or moves as indicated above for two stations off net to a stack, initiates the stack and calls the RX stations.

·         Items in RED for use off net. If the traffic is dispatched on net FREQ becomes HR.

·         Items in parentheses ( ) are completed by the station sending. Items in brackets [] are optional.

NCS:

W3TX (full calls of RX1, RX2, etc.) (FREQ) BOOK [OF TWO]; or
W3TX (full calls of RX1 [address(es)], RX2 [address(es)], etc.) (FREQ) BOOK [OF TWO];

TX:

TX G;

RX #s:

RX1 G; RX2 G; etc., in the order dispatched; and at the stack:

TX:

IS THE FREQUENCY IN USE?… then:

TX:

(RX 1) QRV? (suffixes or tactical call signs may be used)

RX1

QRV

TX:

(RX 2) QRV?

RX2

QRV (TX polls until all RX stations ready.)

TX:

[W3TX] BOOK OF (TWO)... (sends common parts)... <BT>, then:

 

(Any of the RX stations may break here for a fill if needed if TX not QSK.)

TX:

(RX1)... (TX sends message number(s) and variable part(s) for RX1)..., then:

 

<BT> (RX1)? (Signal for RX1 to settle fills and acknowledge message(s).)

RX1:

QSL (RX1 full call) (If off net the RX1 station is automatically excused from the stack to return to net.)

TX:

(RX2)... (TX sends message number(s) and variable part(s) for RX2)...

<AR> END BOOK <AR> N (Optionally adding (RX2)? as a signal for RX2 to acknowledge, but this is not required since RX2 is the last station copying.);

RX2:

QSL (RX2 full call) (settles fills and acknowledges message(s))

TX:

[TU 73] W3TX 

·         If off net and no calls are heard the last two stations return to the net. (Other stations may be dispatched to the stack to call one of the two for additional exchanges.)

·         It is also the responsibility of all stations involved in off-net exchanges to advise the net control of any correction in the number of messages passed, and of the TX station to re-list with the NCS any messages not passed.

 

 

5. ARRL Q-SIGNALS

ARRL QN SIGNALS FOR CW NET USE

INTERNATIONAL Q SIGNALS

 

 

 

QNA*

Answer in prearranged order.

A “Q” signal followed by a ? asks a question. A "Q" signal without the ? answers the question in the affirmative unless otherwise indicated.

QNB*

Act as a relay Between ____ and ____.

QNC

All net stations Copy. I have a

 

message to all net stations.

 

QND*

Net is Directed (controlled by a net control station).

QRA

What is the name of your station?

QNE*

Entire net stand by.

QRG

What is my exact frequency?

QNF

Net is Free (not controlled).

QRH

Does my frequency vary?

QNG

Take over as net control station.

QRI

How is my tone? (1-3)

QNH

Your net frequency is High.

QRK

What is my signal intelligibility? (1-5)

QNI

Net stations report In.*

QRL

Are you busy?

 

I am reporting into the net. (Follow with a list of

QRM

Is my transmission being interfered with?

 

traffic or QRU.)

QRN

Are you troubled by static?

QNJ

Can you copy me?

QRO

Shall I increase transmitter power?

 

Can you copy ____?

QRP

Shall I decrease transmitter power?

QNK*

Transmit messages for ____ to ____.

QRQ

Shall I send faster?

QNL

Your net frequency is Low.

QRS

Shall I send slower?

QNM*

You are QRMing the net. Stand by.

QRT

Shall I stop sending?

QNN

Net control station is ____.

QRU

Have you anything for me?

 

What station has net control?

 

(Answer in negative.)

QNO

Station is leaving the net.

QRV

Are you ready?

QNP

Unable to copy you.

QRW

Shall I tell ____ you're calling him?

 

Unable to copy ____.

QRX

When will you call again?

QNQ*

Move frequency to ____ and wait for ____ to finish

QRZ

Who is calling me?

 

handling traffic. Then send him traffic for ____.

QSA

What is my signal strength? (1-5)

QNR*

Answer ____ and Receive traffic.

QSB

Are my signals fading?

QNS

Following stations are in the net.* (Follow with list.)

QSD

Is my keying defective?

 

Request list of stations in the net.

QSG

Shall I send ____ messages at a time?

QNT

I request permission to leave the net for ____ minutes.

QSK

Can you work break-in?

QNU*

The net has traffic for you. Stand by.

QSL

Can you acknowledge receipt?

QNV*

Establish contact with ____ on this frequency. If

QSM

Shall I repeat the last message sent?

 

successful, move to ____ and send him traffic for ____.

QSO

Can you communicate with ____ direct?

QNW

How do I route messages for ____?

QSP

Will you relay to ____?

QNX

You are excused from the net.*

QSV

Shall I send a series of V's?

 

Request to be excused from the net.

QSW

Will you transmit on ____?

QNY*

Shift to another frequency (or to ____ kHz) to clear

QSX

Will you listen for ____ on ____?

 

traffic with ____

QSY

Shall I change frequency?

QNZ

Zero beat your signal with mine.

QSZ

Shall I send each word/group more than once?

 

 

 

(Answer, send twice or ____.)

* For use only by the Net Control Station.

QTA

Shall I cancel number ____?

 

 

QTB

Do you agree with my word count?

 

Notes on the Use of QN Signals

 

(Answer negative.)

 

The QN signals listed above are special ARRL signals for use in amateur CW nets only. They are not for use in casual amateur conversation. Other meanings that may be used in other services do not apply. Do not use QN signals on phone nets. Say it with words. QN signals need not be followed by a question mark, even though the meaning may be interrogatory.

QTC

How many messages have you to send?

 

QTH

What is your location?

 

QTR

What is your time?

 

QTV

Shall I stand guard for you?

 

QTX

Will you keep your station open for further

 

 

communication with me?

 

QUA

Have you news of ____?

 

 

 

 

(From FSD-218 (2/91) “Pink Card”, ARRL, 225 Main St., Newington, CT 06111)



6. ARRL NUMBERED RADIOGRAMS

ARRL NUMBERED RADIOGRAMS

 

Group One -- For Possible "Relief Emergency" Use

TWENTY THREE

Report at once the accessibility and best

 

 

way to reach your location.

ONE

Everyone safe here. Please don't worry

TWENTY FOUR

Evacuation of residents from this area

TWO

Coming home as soon as possible.

 

urgently needed. Advise plans for help.

THREE

Am in _____ hospital. Receiving

TWENTY FIVE

Furnish as soon as possible the weather

 

excellent care.

 

conditions at your location.

FOUR

Only slight property damage

TWENTY SIX

Help and care for evacuation of sick and

 

here. Do not be concerned about

 

injured from this location needed at once.

 

disaster reports.

Emergency/priority messages originating from official sources

FIVE

Am moving to new location. Send

must carry the signature of the originating official.

 

no further mail or communication.

 

 

Will inform you of new address

Group Two -- Routine Messages

 

when relocated.

 

SIX

Will contact you as soon as

FORTY SIX

Greetings on your birthday and best

 

possible.

 

wishes for many more to come.

SEVEN

Please reply by Amateur Radio

FORTY SEVEN

Reference your message number ____ 

 

through the amateur delivering this

 

to _____ delivered on ____ at ____ UTC.

 

message. This is a free public

FIFTY

Greetings by Amateur Radio.

 

service.

FIFTY ONE

Greetings by Amateur Radio. This

EIGHT

Need additional _____ mobile or

 

message is sent as a free public service

 

portable equipment for immediate

 

by ham radio operators here at _____.

 

emergency use.

 

Am having a wonderful time.

NINE

Additional _____ radio operators

FIFTY TWO

Really enjoyed being with you. Looking

 

needed to  assist with emergency at

 

forward to getting together again.

 

this location.

FIFTY THREE

Received your _____. It's appreciated;

TEN

Please contact _____. Advise to

 

many thanks.

 

standby and provide further emergency

FIFTY FOUR

Many thanks for your good wishes.

 

information, instructions, or assistance.

FIFTY FIVE

Good news is always welcome. Very

ELEVEN

Establish Amateur Radio emergency

 

delighted to hear about yours.

 

communications with _____ on _____

FIFTY SIX

Congratulations on your _____, a most

 

MHz.

 

worthy and deserved achievement.

TWELVE

Anxious to hear from you. No word in

FIFTY SEVEN

Wish we could be together.

 

some time. Please contact me as soon

FIFTY EIGHT

Have a wonderful time. Let us know

 

as possible.

 

when you return.

THIRTEEN

Medical emergency situation exists here.

FIFTY NINE

Congratulations on the new arrival. Hope

FOURTEEN

Situation here becoming critical. Losses

 

mother and child are well.

 

and damage from _____ increasing

* SIXTY

Wishing you the best of everything on

FIFTEEN

Please advise your condition and what

 

_____.

 

help is needed.

SIXTY ONE

Wishing you a very Merry Christmas

SIXTEEN

Property damage very severe in this

 

and a Happy New Year.

 

area.

* SIXTY TWO

Greetings and best wishes to you for a

SEVENTEEN

REACT communications services also

 

pleasant _____ holiday season.

 

available. Establish REACT communica-

SIXTY THREE

Victory or defeat, our best wishes are

 

tion with _____ on channel _____.

 

with you.

EIGHTEEN

Please contact me as soon as possible 

SIXTY FOUR

Arrived safely at _____.

 

at ________.

SIXTY FIVE

Arriving _____ on _____. Please

NINETEEN

Request health and welfare report on

 

arrange to meet me there.

 

_____. (State name, address and

SIXTY SIX

DX QSLs are on hand for you at the

 

telephone number.)

 

_____ QSL Bureau. Send _____ self

TWENTY

Temporarily stranded. Will need some

 

addressed envelopes.

 

assistance. Please contact me at _____.

SIXTY SEVEN

Your message number ___ undeliverable

TWENTY ONE

Search and Rescue assistance is

 

because of _____. Please advise.

 

needed by local authorities here. Advise

SIXTY EIGHT

Sorry to hear you are ill. Best wishes for

 

availability.

 

a speedy recovery.

TWENTY TWO

Need accurate information on the extent

SIXTY NINE

Welcome to the _____. We are glad to

 

and type of conditions now existing at

 

have you with us and hope you will

 

your location. Please furnish this

 

enjoy the fun and fellowship of the

 

information and reply without delay.

 

organization.

 

 

* can be used for all holidays

ARL RADIOGRAM NUMBERS SHOULD BE SPELLED OUT AT ALL TIMES.

From ARRL FSD-3 (mod 5/05)

 

 

_______________________________

Page last updated June 15, 2009, W3YVQ

BTHCWweb.htm, v6.8,

© 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, W3YVQ, all rights reserved.

Call signs used are intended to be generic for example only and not related to licensees in any way. ARES® is a trademark of ARRL, Inc., <http://www.arrl.org/>.