Name

aegis -CoPy_file — copy a file into a change

Synopsis

aegis -CoPy_file [option...] filename...

aegis -CoPy_file -INDependent [option...] filename...

aegis -CoPy_file -List [option...]

aegis -CoPy_file -Help

DESCRIPTION

The aegis -CoPy_file command is used to copy a file into a change. The named files will be copied from the baseline into the development directory, and added to the list of files in the change. The version of files copied from the baseline is remembered.

This command may be used to copy tests into a change, not just source files. Tests are treated just like any other source file, and are subject to the same process.

Warning: If there are files in the development directory of the same name they will be overwritten by this command.

You may also name directories. All of the source files in the directories named, and all directories below them, will be copied from the baseline into the development directory, and added to the list of files in the change.

When copying files explicitly, it is an error if the file is already part of the change. When you name a directory, all of the source files in the project below that directory are copied, except any which are already in the change. It is an error if none of the files implicitly named by the directory can be used.

If you want to change a copied source file to be executable (shell scripts, for example) then you simply use the normal chmod(1) command; the reverse to make it not executable. If any of the file's executable bits are set at aede(1) time the file is remembered as executable and all execute bits (minus the project's umask) will be set by subsequent aecp(1) commands.

File Name Interpretation

The aegis program will attempt to determine the project file names from the file names given on the command line. All file names are stored within aegis projects as relative to the root of the baseline directory tree. The development directory and the integration directory are shadows of this baseline directory, and so these relative names apply here, too. Files named on the command line are first converted to absolute paths if necessary. They are then compared with the baseline path, the development directory path, and the integration directory path, to determine a baseline-relative name. It is an error if the file named is outside one of these directory trees.

The -BAse_RElative option may be used to cause relative filenames to be interpreted as relative to the baseline path; absolute filenames will still be compared with the various paths in order to determine a baseline-relative name.

The relative_filename_preference in the user configuration file may be used to modify this default behavior. See aeuconf(5) for more information.

Process Side Effects

This command will cancel any build or test registrations, because adding another file logically invalidates them. If the project configuration file was added, any diff registration will also be canceled.

When the change files are listed (aegis -List Change_Files -TERse) the copied files will appear in the listing. When the project files are listed with an explicit change number (aegis -List Project_Files -TERse -Change N) none of the change's files, including the copied files, will appear in the terse listing. These two features are very helpful when calling aegis from within a DMT to generate the list of source files.

THE BASELINE LOCK

The baseline lock is used to ensure that the baseline remains in a consistent state for the duration of commands which need to read the contents of files in the baseline.

The commands which require the baseline to be consistent (these include the aeb(1), aecp(1) and aed(1) commands) take a baseline read lock. This is a non-exclusive lock, so the concurrent development of changes is not hindered.

The command which modifies the baseline, aeipass(1), takes a baseline write lock. This is an exclusive lock, forcing aeipass(1) to block until there are no active baseline read locks.

It is possible that one of the above development commands will block until an in-progress aegis -Integrate_PASS completes. This is usually of short duration while the project history is updated. The delay is essential so that these commands receive a consistent view of the baseline. No other integration command will cause the above development commands to block.

When aegis' branch functionality is in use, a read (non-exclusive) lock is taken on the branch baseline and also each of the "parent" baselines. However, a baseline write (exclusive) lock is only taken on the branch baseline; the "parent" baselines are only read (non-exclusive) locked.

TEST CORRELATIONS

The “aegis -Test -SUGgest” command may be used to have aegis suggest suitable regression tests for your change, based on the source files in your change. This automatically focuses testing effort to relevant tests, reducing the number of regression tests necessary to be confident that you have not introduced a bug.

The test correlations are generated by the “aegis -Integrate_Pass” command, which associates each test in the change with each source file in the change. Thus, each source file accumulates a list of tests which have been associated with it in the past. This is not as exact as code coverage analysis, but is a reasonable approximation in practice.

The aecp(1) and aenf(1) commands are used to associate files with a change. While they do not actively perform the association, these are the files used by aeipass(1) and aet(1) to determine which source files are associated with which tests.

Test Correlation Accuracy

Assuming that the testing correlations are accurate and that the tests are evenly distributed across the function space, there will be a less than 1/number chance that a relevant test has not been run by the “aegis -Test -SUGgest number” command. A small amount of noise is added to the test weighting, so that unexpected things are sometimes tested, and the same tests are not run every time.

Test correlation accuracy can be improved by ensuring that:

  • Each change should be strongly focused, with no gratuitous file inclusions. This avoids spurious correlations.

  • Each item of new functionality should be added in an individual change, rather than several together. This strongly correlates tests with functionality.

  • Each bug should be fixed in an individual change, rather than several together. This strongly correlates tests with functionality.

  • Test correlations will be lost if files are moved. This is because correlations are by name.

    The best way for tests to correlate accurately with source files is when a change contains a test and exactly those files relating to the functionality under test. Too many spurious files will weaken the usefulness of the testing correlations.

Notification

The copy_file_command in the project config file is run, if set. The project_file_command is also run, if set, and if there has been an integration recently. See aepconf(5) for more information.

File Action Adjustment

When this command runs, it first checks the change files against the projects files. If there are inconsistencies, the file actions will be adjusted as follows:

create

If a file is being created, but another change set is integrated which also creates the file, the file action in the change set still being developed will be adjusted to "modify".

modify

If a file is being modified, but another change set is integrated which removes the file, the file action in the change set still being developed will be adjusted to "create".

remove

If a file is being removed, but another change set is integrated which removes the file, the file will be dropped from the change set still being developed.

OPTIONS

The following options are understood:

-BAse_RElative

This option may be used to cause relative filenames to be considered relative to the base of the source tree. See aeuconf(5) for the corresponding user preference.

-CUrrent_RElative

This option may be used to cause relative filenames to be considered relative to the current directory. This is usually the default. See aeuconf(5) for the corresponding user preference.

-BRanch number

This option may be used to specify a different branch for the origin file, rather than the baseline. (See also -TRunk option.\) Please Note: the -BRanch option does not take a project name, just the branch number suffix.

-GrandParent

This option may be used to specify the grandparent branch (one up from the current branch) for the origin file, rather than the baseline. (The -grandparent option is the same as the “-branch ..” option.)

-Change number

This option may be used to specify a particular change within a project. See aegis(1) for a complete description of this option.

-DELta number

This option may be used to specify a particular delta in the project's history to copy the file from, rather than the most current version. If the delta has been given a name (see aedn(1) for how) you may use a delta name instead of a delta number. It is an error if the delta specified does not exist. Delta numbers start from 1 and increase; delta 0 is a special case meaning “when the branch started”.

-DELta_Date string

This option may be used to specify a particular date and time in the project's history to copy the file from, rather than the most current version. It is an error if the string specified cannot be interpreted as a valid date and time. Quote the string if you need to use spaces.

-Help

This option may be used to obtain more information about how to use the aegis program.

-INDependent

This option is used to specify that the copy is to be run independent of any particular change. The files will be copied relative to the current directory.

-Keep

This option may be used to retain files and/or directories usually deleted or replaced by the command. Defaults to the user's delete_file_preference if not specified, see aeuconf(5) for more information.

-No_Keep

This option may be used to ensure that the files and/or directories are deleted or replaced by the command. Defaults to the user's delete_file_preference if not specified, see aeuconf(5) for more information.

-List

This option may be used to obtain a list of suitable subjects for this command. The list may be more general than expected.

-Not_Logging

This option may be used to disable the automatic logging of output and errors to a file. This is often useful when several aegis commands are combined in a shell script.

-Output filename

This option may be used to specify an output file of a file being copied from the baseline. Only one baseline file may be named when this option is used. The file name "-" is understood to mean the standard output. This option does not add the file to the set of change files. No locks are taken when this option is used, not even the baseline read lock.

-OverWriting

This option may be used to force overwriting of files. The default action is to give an error if an existing file would be overwritten.

-Project name

This option may be used to select the project of interest. When no -Project option is specified, the AEGIS_PROJECT environment variable is consulted. If that does not exist, the user's $HOME/.aegisrc file is examined for a default project field (see aeuconf(5) for more information). If that does not exist, when the user is only working on changes within a single project, the project name defaults to that project. Otherwise, it is an error.

-Read_Only

This option may be used to specify that the file is to be used to insulate the change from the baseline. The user does not intend to edit the file. These files must be uncopied before development may end.

-REScind

This option may be used to rescind (roll back) a completed change. The change to rescind (roll back) is specified in the usual way, with one of the --delta options.

-TERse

This option may be used to cause listings to produce the bare minimum of information. It is usually useful for shell scripts.

-TRunk

This option may be used to specify the project trunk for the origin file, rather than the baseline. (See also -BRanch option, the -trunk option is the same as the “-branch -” option.)

-Verbose

This option may be used to cause aegis to produce more output. By default aegis only produces output on errors. When used with the -List option this option causes column headings to be added.

-Wait

This option may be used to require Aegis commands to wait for access locks, if they cannot be obtained immediately. Defaults to the user's lock_wait_preference if not specified, see aeuconf(5) for more information.

-No_Wait

This option may be used to require Aegis commands to emit a fatal error if access locks cannot be obtained immediately. Defaults to the user's lock_wait_preference if not specified, see aeuconf(5) for more information.

See also aegis(1) for options common to all aegis commands.

All options may be abbreviated; the abbreviation is documented as the upper case letters, all lower case letters and underscores (_) are optional. You must use consecutive sequences of optional letters.

All options are case insensitive, you may type them in upper case or lower case or a combination of both, case is not important.

For example: the arguments "-project, "-PROJ" and "-p" are all interpreted to mean the -Project option. The argument "-prj" will not be understood, because consecutive optional characters were not supplied.

Options and other command line arguments may be mixed arbitrarily on the command line, after the function selectors.

The GNU long option names are understood. Since all option names for aegis are long, this means ignoring the extra leading '-'. The "--option=value" convention is also understood.

RECOMMENDED ALIAS

The recommended alias for this command is



csh% alias aecp 'aegis -cp \!* -v'
sh$ aecp(){aegis -cp "$@" -v}

ERRORS

It is an error if the change is not in the being developed state. It is an error if the change is not assigned to the current user. It is an error if the file is already in the change and the -OverWrite option is not specified.

EXIT STATUS

The aegis command will exit with a status of 1 on any error. The aegis command will only exit with a status of 0 if there are no errors.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

See aegis(1) for a list of environment variables which may affect this command. See aepconf(5) for the project configuration file's project_specific field for how to set environment variables for all commands executed by Aegis.

EXAMPLES

Here are some simple examples. Remember that most commands are relative to the current directory, even though these examples assume you are at the base of the development directory tree.

Copy Whole Project

To copy the whole project into your change, use the command


aecp .

The trailing dot is part of the command, it means "the currect directory and everything below it". This works for any directory in your project source tree, if you want to be more seledctive.

Prroduce Earlier Project Version

You you wish to exactly reproduces the sources for an earlier version of your project, you need to know the edelta number (use ael proj-history to find it). Then use this command:


aecp -delta n .

where n is the delta number from the project history. Again, the trailing dot is part of the command. By using the $version substitution (see aesub(5) for more information) you can embed this delta number into your program before distributing it.

It is also possible to give a previous change number, instead, using this command:


aecp -delta-from-change n .

where n is the change number of interest. Again, the trailing dot is part of the command.

Rescind a Change

When you need to rescind (back out) a completed change, it will probably have been some time ago, so you need to know the delta number or change number. Use this command:


aecp -delta n -rescind .

where n is the delta number of interest. All of the other -delta variantrs also work, so if you know the change number, you can be more selective about which files to copy:


aecp -delta-from-change n `aegis -l cf -ter -c n`

where n is the change number of interest. This only copies the files which were in the offending change.

SEE ALSO

aeb(1)

build also takes a baseline read lock (non-exclusive)

aecpu(1)

reverse action of aecp

aedb(1)

begin development of a change

aedn(1)

assign a name to a delta

aeipass(1)

integrate pass takes a baseline write lock (exclusive)

aemv(1)

rename a file as part of a change

aenf(1)

add a new file to a change

aerm(1)

add files to be deleted to a change

aeuconf(5)

user configuration file format

COPYRIGHT

aegis version 4.22 Copyright (C) 1991-2006 Peter Miller; All rights reserved.

The aegis program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details use the 'aegis -VERSion License' command. This is free software and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions; for details use the 'aegis -VERSion License' command.

AUTHOR

Peter MillerE-Mail:millerp@canb.auug.org.au
/\/\*WWW:http://www.canb.auug.org.au/~millerp/