Theory: A Definition
A set of interrelated statements that provides an explanation for a class of events.
The view that personality is fashioned progressively as the individual passes through various
Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital.
Three states of being: id, ego, superego.
Freud: Psychosexual Stages of Development
The role of the unconscious
Feminist View of Freud
Some scholars find Freud complicit with sexual abuse of women and girls.
Blaming the victim, rather than the abuser, was common.
Erik Erikson: Psychosocial Stages of Development
Stages pose tasks and crises that individuals must struggle through.
Personality development takes place throughout the entire life span.
Erikson’s Nine Stages
Trust vs. mistrust
Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
Initiative vs. guilt
Industry vs. inferiority
Identity vs. identity confusion
Intimacy vs. isolation
Generativity vs. stagnation
Integrity vs. despair
Despair vs. hope and faith
Concerned with observable behavior: what people
do and say.
Behavior divided into units: responses.
Environment divided into units: stimuli.
Also called learning theory.
Process of stimulus substitution in which a new, previously neutral stimulus is substituted
for the stimulus that naturally elicits a response.
A type of learning in which the consequences of a behavior alter the strength of that behavior.
Pathological behavior is acquired through learning.The way to eliminate an unwanted behavior
is to stop reinforcing it.
Maintains that humans actively intervene in the course of events to control their destinies.
Holistic approach to the human condition.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Needs must be met in order.
Safety and Security
Love and Belonging
Cognition: Acts or processes of knowing.
Representing, organizing, treating, and transforming information as we devise our behavior.
Cognitive stages in development: Sequential periods in the growth or maturing of an individual’s
ability to think—to gain knowledge, self-awareness, and awareness of the environment.
Cognitive Stages in Development
Infants adapt to the world in two ways.
Assimilation: taking in
new information and making it “fit” with existing model of world.
one’s schema to make it match the reality of the world.
Cognitive Learning and Information Processing
Cognitive learning (Bandura, Mischel, Rosenthal and Zimmerman)
Imitation of behavior of socially competent models
Use of symbols
Centers on the relationship between the developing individual and the changing environment.
Focuses on the relationship between the person and the environment.
Determined by the activity of groups
a. Child interacts with other persons
b. Assimilates social aspects of activity
c. Takes information and internalizes it
d. Social values become personal values
Mechanistic Model: Focuses on the universe as a machine composed of elementary particles
Continuity: Learning is cumulative, building on itself.
Organismic Model: Focuses on the universe as a whole.
Discontinuity: Individual is seen as passing through stages.
Nature Versus Nurture
The “Which” Question
The “How Much” Question
The “How” Question
Definition: focuses on individual differences and seeks answers to why individuals exhibit
Jerome Kagan: Timidity studies
The Minnesota Twin Project
Evolutionary Adaptation Theory