Astronomy Telescopes Optics Accessories

Joe's conglomeration of CCD astronomy science image analysis

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In this section I will put all the pictures and example images I can find that are from CCD articles.  I am trying to show the astronomy amateur that uses CCD image cameras that there is more to just taking an image and trying to make science out of the results than you generally see in standard CCD articles.

The CCD has revolutionized the ability of the amateur astronomer to perform deep space science by analizing the pixels and gray shades into science of the cosmos.

From all of you that I borrowed pictures and description I hope the distribution of your's and my CCD data will inhance science.

We will want to have a wavelength calibration of photon flux over the useful pixel responsivity for each pixel of the CCD modified by the through-put of your complete optical system. 


Steps that make up a good CCD science image


Telescope Preparation for Session:


-Clean all optical surfaces and filters if required before starting a session. Do not use strait Windex, to clean good optical surfaces. Some companies make a cleaning solution for over- coated optics. You do not want to scratch the coating either as this will add photon scatter. Solutions you may have around the house or from a store are too caustic to use on astronomical optics.  Since you can not remove the objects to clean, we must clean them in-place using long q-tip swabs. A good cleaning solution will allow you to blow off or remove dust and will dry with no left-over film on the surface.


Purchase a can of DRY Computer compressed air. This can be used to blow light dust off surfaces.  Purchase a fine camera lens brush to help gently push the dust off.


To determine if surfaces are suspect dirty use a high intensity flashlight at a grazing angle across the surface. Observe the particles, sizes, and types. Then try to blow or brush them off.


You can also use a UV light to look for other smudges on the surfaces. Finger prints or smudges will require a liquid cleaning.


Find the mix of a cleaning solution at this URL =


Here is there mixture:  use only clean containers.

Quoted from the URL:

… ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1) distilled water (supermarkets, like for IRONs, very pure, no additives)       

2) "pure" 91% isopropyl alcohol (pharmacies, drug stores....may have to be ordered)

3) coffee filters              

4) "regular" Windex, the blue kind (supermarket plain no additives)       

5) Kodak PhotoFlo solution (camera and photo houses only)

6) Synthetic Cotton Replacement Pads (some finer pharmacies, medical supply companies....ask your local M.D.!!)

7) two "atomizers" or simple squirt bottles for dispensing liquids  (Wal-Mart or similar)     

8) box of KLEENEX [only!] pure white, no additives tissue (supermarket) and very clean Q-tips on the long wood sticks.

9) quart mixing jars, very clean and sterile (try your cabinets!)   

10) sterile eye dropper (drug store)




SOLUTION ONE:  Cleaning Solution. 

You are going to have much more solution of each component than need for one quart of final SuperPlus Cleaning Solution.  Keep all left-over unused and unmixed components well sealed and marked for future use.


Step 1:  FILTER THE WINDEX VIA THE COFFEE FILTER into a thoroughly washed and dried container; go ahead and filter the entire bottle as this is much simpler and more effective than attempting to filter one ounce.


Step 2:  FILTER THE DISTILLED WATER using a second clean coffee filter into another jar.  Yes, I know that distilled water is supposedly inclusion free, but trust me on this one.


Step 3:  MIX...... In another  quart jar, add the following (do NOT substitute nor change amounts!)

   a) the filtered and purified WINDEX - 1 ounce

   b) ALCOHOL 91%  1.5 ounce

   c) PHOTO-FLO - two drops...that's RIGHT, I said "two drops"....any more and you will be sorry.  And I mean SMALL drops!! (about 1/16th ounce is pushing the limit)


Step 4: MIX together gently but do NOT shake.


Step 5: ADD 12 OUNCES OF Distilled water.  I chose to mix my solution in empty quart plastic alcohol bottles; if doing so, merely fill the bottle to within 1" of the top.


Step 6: Pour liquid into your MARKED squirt bottle for use.


SOLUTION TWO:  Rinse Solution.

In 12 ounces of filtered distilled water add TWO drops (only!!) of Photo-Flo solution.  No more no less.  Transfer liquid into SECOND MARKED squirt bottle.


You are now ready to CLEAN your optics.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------end quote….


-Set up your software controls for the black and white CCD and Telescope. Do not use any color CCD version chips for photometry.


-Focus the telescope and lock optics in position. Focus in the deepest IR filter (like “i” filter) you plan to use in the session.  If the UBVRI filters are not Par-Focal, or set so the focus appears the same for each filter, you will have to take lots more Flat Field calibrations to compensate for each filter focus change.


One method for focusing is to point at a bright star, put in the most red filter, and cover the front of the telescope with a cover that has three holes at 120 degree angles.  Make a card board or metal cover with three holes each about 2” to 3” in diameter placed at 120 degree angles and out toward the edge of the telescope aperture.  Then power up the camara and adjust the focus until the three separate hole images overlap.  Remove the focus cover when done.


-Turn off Auto-Subtract Dark Frame if you want to do manual calibration later.


-Check your seeing blur star image sizes (FWHM) so you can determine if the seeing is really good. Turn off the AO device if you have one. Take an image of a star field where different magnitude stars are on the same image. Look at the cross section of the images to see how many pixels the blurr seems to be taking. You may want to use 2x2 or 4x4 binning of pixels because the diffraction spot size will be larger than the minimum 3 pixel spot size (Nyquist Limit).  Leave the CCD on now to finish cooling.


-Check your CCD pixel size (9micons approximately) against the full width half maximum (FWHM) point spread function (PSF) of your telescope optical airy image size.


                        PSF-angle = 1.22 “Lamda in micro-meters”/ “meter diameter of primary”,

The PSF-angle output will be in micro-radians.


                        Airy Disk Diameter = 2 * PSF-angle * “Effective Focal Length (EFL) mm” / 10-3,

                                    The output should be expressed in microns or micro-meters (um).


                        The telescope focal plane effective “plate scale” Arcseconds per micron

=  206.265 / EFLmm,


The Effective pixel sky Arcseconds = “plate scale” * “pixel size in microns”,


            Here is a table of some theoretical standard telescope examples.


            Diameter          EFLmm        PSF-angle             Airy Disk      Plate-Scale-at-Focus

              Inches            mm               at 0.5 um                  Diam. microns        arcseconds/micron


            8” F10             2032            2.97 micro-radians           12 um               0.101

            10”F10            2540            2.37                                 12                    0.081

            16”F10            4064            1.48                                 12                    0.050

            32” F10           8128            0.74                                 12                    0.025


            EFLmm            CCD Pixel Size            Sky-Arcseconds           Seeing Conditions

            mm                   microns                          per pixel                     blurr Arcseconds


            2032                30 um                           3.04                             2 to 10 variable

            2032                20 um                           2.03                             2 to 10

            2032                13 um                           1.31                             2 to 10

            2032               9  um                            0.91                             2 to 10

            4064                30 um                           1.51                             2 to 10

            4064                9  um                            0.46                             2 to 10

            8128                30 um                           0.77                             2 to 10

            8128                9 um                             0.23                             atmospheric blurr

                                                                                                Will control the seeing spot size.


-Set your CCD chip output mode to single pixel or multiple binning mode, whichever you find gives better results.  Binning pixel outputs may help CCD’s with small 9 micron type pixel sizes. Binning adds multiple-pixel electrons together before actually reading out the one larger value, thus reducing the readout noise over the multiple summed pixels.


-Check your outside air temperature (OAT) and dew point so you can decide if fog or condensation will be a problem.  If the OAT and the Dew Point are within 3 degrees you may get fog. Prepare the dew cover heating system for fog.


-The most accurate method to record your geocentric time is as follows.


-Purchase an Atomic Clock Sync program for you PC.  You can synchronize your PC to UT time with programs that use the internet, or gps satellites. This URL= is one place to get a program. You should have a computer dedicated to your observations using the UT time.  Double click the time display in the lower right corner of our PC.  Then choose the TIME ZONE as London GMT.  Turn off the auto-daylight saving. Perform a search on your PC and look for the program “W32Time”. If this exists on your computer you can set up internet updates of time from You may have to hack into your register and change the time update seconds to like every hour.


To change the interval that XP, VISTA Windows updates the time using the internet time servers via regedit, navigate to: Win2k sp4 does not have the w32time file.

1.       HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\ControlSet001\Services \W32Time\TimeProviders\NtpClient

2.       Select "SpecialPollInterval"

3.       Change decimal value from 604800 to a different value in seconds. i.e.: 172800 (2 Days) or 86400 (1 Day) and so on.


You will later use your local position offset on the Earth to calculate the Local Sidereal Time of observation.


-One should have access to the USNO MICA CD disk of The Astronomical Almanac 2008 for the GMS0UT times from 1800 to 2050, Versions 2.1 current. URL =

Or purchase at  or


-The calculation from raw UT Earth geocentric Greenwich Mean Solar time you recorded for your image observation to your Local Sidereal Time (LST) geocentric from your Earth location is as follows.  This is not Atomic Clock time UTC, which must be corrected when UT and UTC is off by more than 0.9 second. You should never try to convert local civil time from some clock that has no memory of the real time.


LSTgeocentric = “lookup GMS0UT time for your day in the almanac 00h 00m 00s”

        “your decimal Longitude dd.d”

     + (1.00273790935 * “UT recorded observation image time” )


You can go to this URL= to see UT time.

Your Longitude dd.d =  “degrees west of  0 meridian” + min * 1/60 + seconds * 1/3600.


Determine your Julian Date at GMSoUT 12h 00m 00s NOON, and add the observation UT time elapsed since NOON (0.000 to 12.0000 hours) to create your observation JD date. An astronomical Julian day number is a count of astronomical nychthemerons (i.e., nychthemerons which begin at noon GMT) from the astronomical nychthemeron which began at noon GMT on -4712-01-01 JC.

For recording the time of an astronomical event the Julian day number of the nychthemeron in which the event occurs is, of course, usually not sufficiently precise. In order to specify the time of an event astronomers add a fractional component to the Julian day number, e.g., 0.25 = six hours (1/4 of 24 hours) after the start of the nychthemeron. An astronomical Julian day number plus a fractional component specifying the time elapsed since the start of the nychthemeron denoted by that Julian day number is called an astronomical Julian date.

-Prepare your observing session by having the finder charts with standard stars lists you will image at JD2000 or precessioned and nutationed to your UT zero hour JD date.

            There has to be a URL out there with the equation for a PC.


-Perform the telescope mount model alignment procedure and be sure the RA and DEC values match some standard stars.  Set you telescope mount time to the correct LST.


-Check that the filters you will be using are actually the correct filters in the filter holder positions that the computer will access.


-All images must be saved in FITS format.  Any other image formats are not Photometric usable.


-FITS Header Information you should have ready:

The following is an example header for a simple case of a single CCD using a single amplifier. The instrument is a direct camera.

SIMPLE  =                   
                                    T / FITS format
BITPIX  =                  
                                    16 / Number of bits per pixel
NAXIS   =                   
                                    2 / Number of image axes
OBJECT  = 'm51 V 600s'        
                                    / Observation title
OBSTYPE = 'OBJECT  '          
                                    / Observation type
DATE-OBS= '05/04/87'           /
                                    UTC date of observation
MJD-OBS =         46890.394063 / MJD
                                    of observation
UTC     = '09:27:27.00'       
                                    / UTC of observation
LST     = '14:53:42.00'       
                                    / LST of observation
RADECSYS= 'FK5     '          
                                    / Default coordinate system
EQUINOX =              
                                    2000.0 / Default coordinate equinox
OBJNAME = 'M 51    '          
                                    / Target object
OBJTYPE = 'galaxy  '          
                                    / Type of object
OBJRA   = '13:29:24.00'       
                                    / Right ascension of object (hours)
OBJDEC  = '47:15:34.00'       
                                    / Declination of object (degrees)
                                    1950.0 / Epoch of object coordinates
OBSERVAT= 'KPNO    '          
                                    / Observatory
PHOTOMET= 'photometric'        / Photometric
TELESCOP= '0.9m    '          
                                    / Telescope
TELCONF = 'f13'               
                                    / Telescope configuration
TELTCS  = 'TCS V1.0'          
                                    / Telescope control system
TELRA   = '13:29:24.00'       
                                    / Telescope right ascension (hours)
TELDEC  = '47:15:34.00'       
                                    / Telescope declination (hours)
                                    1430 / Telescope focus
CAMERA  = 'Direct Camera'      / Camera
DETECTOR= 'T2KA    '          
                                    / Detector
DEWAR   = 'Universal Dewar #2' / Dewar
RAPANGL =               
                                    -90.0 / Position angle of RA axis (degrees)
                                    0.0 / Position angle of Dec axis (degrees)
DETSIZE = '[1:2048,1:2048]'    / Detector size
CCDSEC  = '[1:2048,1:2048]'   
                                    / Region of CCD read
CCDSUM  = '1 1    
                                    '           / CCD on-chip
BIASSEC = '[2049:2080,1:2048]' / Bias section
DATASEC = '[1:2048,1:2048]'    / Data section
TRIMSEC = '[1:2048,1:2048]'    / Section of useful data
EXPTIME =                 
                                    600 / Exposure time (seconds)
                                    600 / Dark time (seconds)
GAIN    =                 
                                    4.3 / CCD gain (e/ADU)
RDNOISE =               
                                      12. / Readout noise (e)
FILENAME= ''         
                                    / Original filename
CHECKSUM= '0WDA3T940TA90T99'   / Header checksum
DATASUM = 'aMmjbMkhaMkhaMkh'   / Data checksum
CHECKVER= 'complement'         / Checksum
OBSERVER= 'G. Jacoby, D. Tody, F. Valdes' / Observers
PROPOSER= 'G. Jacoby, D. Tody, F. Valdes' / Proposers
PROPOSAL= 'Search for primeval galaxies' / Proposal title
PROPID  = 'KPNO 12345'        
                                    / Proposal identification
ARCHIVE = 'KPNO STB'           /
OBSID   = 'kpno.36in.870405.257752' / Observation identification
IMAGEID =                   
                                    1 / Image identification
KWDICT  = 'NOAO FITS Keyword Dictionary: V0.0' / Keyword dictionary

Single CCD Geometry Examples

The following examples show the main keywords for the detector geometry for a single CCD using one amplifier and using two amplifiers. The WCS shown is in pixels though this could be given in RA and DEC if the data system allows it.

1. An example for a single CCD with a single amplifier. In this case a simple FITS image is produced rather than a FITS Image extension; i.e. there is only a PHU and it has associated data.

----------------------- PHU ----------------------------------------------------
OBSERVAT= 'KPNO    '          
                                    / Observatory of observation
TELESCOP= '0.9-m   '          
                                    / Telescope of observation
OBSID   = 'kpno.36in.870405.257752' / Observation identification
IMAGEID =                   
                                    1 / Image identification
DETECTOR= 'T2KA   '           
                                    / Detector of observation
DETSIZE = '[1:2048,1:2048]'    / Detector size
NCCDS   =                   
                                    1 / Number of CCDs in detector
DETSEC  = '[1:2048,1:2048]'   
                                    / Section of detector
CCDNAME = 'T2KA   '           
                                    / CCD name
CCDSIZE = '[1:2048,1:2048]'    / CCD effective size
                                    1 / Number of amplifiers
AMPNAME = 'Amplifier 1'        / Amplifier
CCDSUM  = '1 1'               
                                    / On chip summation
CCDSEC  = '[1:2048,1:2048]'   
                                    / CCD section read
DATASEC = '[1:2048,1:2048]'    / Data section in raw image
BIASSEC = '[2049:2080,1:2048]' / Bias section in raw image
TRIMSEC = '[1:2048,1:2048]'    / Trim section definition
GAIN    =                 
                                    1.7 / CCD amplifier gain (e/ADU)
RDNOISE =                 
                                    4.3 / CCD amplifier read noise (e)
CTYPE1  = 'PIXEL   '           / Axis type
CTYPE2  = 'PIXEL   '           / Axis type
CRPIX1  =                  
                                    1. / Coordinate reference pixel
CRPIX2  =                  
                                    1. / Coordinate reference pixel
CRVAL1  =                   1. /
                                    Coordinate reference value
CRVAL2  =                  
                                    1. / Coordinate reference value
CDELT1  =                  
                                    1. / Coordinate interval
CDELT2  =                  
                                    1. / Coordinate interval

Before Observing Session:


The CCD area camera must be at working cooled temperature (TE -30 to -50 below OAT) for at least 30 minutes. Local frost, ice crystals, heavy dust particles, or condensation on any optical surface from the input aperture to the CCD will negate this image. If it is overcast or cloudy consider not doing Photometry.


Take 10 to 20 Thermal Bias Frames of 1 second with no possible photons on the CCD. The bias frames rather than the bias over scan pixel area should be used in correcting the CCD image. The averaging of Bias Frames eliminates cosmic rays, read noise variations, and random fluctuations of the bias frame.


Take 10 to 20 Dark Current Frames from 1 second up to your maximum exposure time T-seconds with no possible photons on the CCD.  CCD’s with 9 micron pixels may have a full-well near 85,000 electrons, while pixels of 24 microns will hold 350,000 e-.


The CDD and telescope must be in-focus for the session. One must not change focus or shift any part of the telescope optical train after Flat Frames are taken for the session.


Expose the CCD so that a histogram shows about 60% of full-well across all CCD pixels. If your CCD has anti-blooming you will want that turned off and you will want to keep exposure times so you are within 60% of the LINEAR working full-well range.  Do not just expose to saturate the CCD pixels.  The Flat Frame will be divided pixel by pixel into your science image frame so that it corrects for all wavelength response defects of each pixel.  The problem here is that if pixels are DEAD you may be dividing by zero counts. This would not fix the BAD DEAD Pixels which would be left at zero counts. You will still have to make a CCD MAP of DEAD or low performance pixels and HOT pixels and substitute in a noise background count if the defect pixels fall within science pixels.


A)    Take 10 to 20 Dome Flat Frames for each FILTER to be used against a uniformly illuminated all wavelength light source reflected off of a lambertian flat background.




B) Take 10 to 20 Sky Flat Frames for each FILTER to be used against the sunset or sunrise sky with the drive off. Same histogram conditions as Dome Flat.

Raw Frames


            Turn off your software Auto-Subtract Dark Frame if you want to do manual calibration later.


Take a CCD unsaturated Raw Frame in any UBVRI or RGB or H-alpha filtering is integrated for T-seconds and readout including all noise sources and all over-scan pixels. Don’t take pictures with ANTI-BLOOMING being used to stop over-filling of the pixel. Use CCD’s that don’t have anti-blooming so the pixel area can be maximized. Use binning of pixels to help signal to noise.


Take 10 or more shorter exposure raw frames to be added together of the target area.


Take 10 or more Flux Standard star frames if no standard stars are on the local raw frame. Find standard stars as close to the target source as possible to minimize atmospherics.

Single Pixel Corrections using software:


            Correct for Dead non responsive bad pixel map on the CCD.

Correct for Hot pixel map across the CCD.

            Correct for cosmic ray pixel hits across the CCD.

            Correct for blooming down the CCD Rows and Columns.

            Correct for trapped electrons during readout. Dark Rows or Columns.

            Correct for ROW and COLUMN amplification errors in CCD readout.


Correct for Camera Chip linearty depending on the full well of the frame. Some cameras may be linear only in the region of 60% full scale full well capacity. You need to know what your CCD chip behavior over the full well range.


Determine the CCD A/D round-off charge loss. The last 1 ADU may be less than the number of electrons that the A/D counts. Therefore some charge is lost by the A/D not counting less than 1 ADU. This is called digitization noise.


Readout noise adds electron counts to the pixel frame. You should find the specification on the readout noise for your CCD. Cooling the CCD does not stop readout noise.


Bias noise added to frames so that they do not show negative A/D conversions.  Your CCD chip has an amplifier and an analog to digital converter.  The combination is set so that there is a minimum bias count added to all pixel electrons before final A/D.  The bias counts exist in all frames, dark current frames and flat frames.

Frame Pixel Corrections using software:


Create mean average of the sum of 10 Thermal Bias frames (no light, zero time exposure). Cooling the CCD reduces Bias.


Create mean average of the sum of 10 Dark Current frames (no light, normal exposure time). Cooling the CCD reduces dark currents.


Create mean average of the sum of 10 Flat Field dirty throughput frames (exposure time to get 80% full well level across all pixels evenly).


Correct for the Background Sky pollution level caused by zodiac light, local light sources, moon angle, sunrise or sunset, on the final frame.


Correct for meteor or satellite reflection paths on the frame.


Correct for fringing or wavelength interference bands across the frame ( take sky flats for each filter that causes fringing).


Correct for Earth Telluric emissions (takeTelluric standard star images).

Photometric Corrections Continued:


Remove bright objects from the vicinity of the photometric region to be analyzed.


Correct for ghost reflections of bright stars that might show up.


Determine standard stars on frame.


Determine the seeing condition blur, arc-seconds, and Airy disk sizes expected or FWHM point spread function from the telescope information.


Determine what aperture size in pixels to use in analyzing stars.


Correct frame for Secant Z atmospheric extinction.


Correct for the small differences in telescope bandpass.


Correct for small differences in the filter bandpasses you used in the exposures. This should include blue leakage.


Calculate your local UBVRI transformations for this frame.


            Create the world coordinate system for the image to 0.2 arcsec on average.


Other Photometric corrections.


Feel like correcting for Interstellar reddening?


Feel like correcting for radial velocity shifts? If the photons are shifted toward the red end of the spectrum you may get more RED filter counts than in the other filters?


Feel like correcting for gravitational lensing? What if the star or object has a high Z shift.

Over views of the CCD chip and accessories that contribute to the image quality and integration time.
There are several sources of information about matching your telescope image quality to the pixel sized to meet Nyquest statistics on a pixel. I am not gonna try and cover the best CCD for your usage in astronomy.
The CCD is made up of individual detector pixels.  These lay next too each other very closely and therefor can cause effects between them, around them, under them and through them.
First off the index of refraction of the single pixel made of Silicon or Germainium to visible light is very high. This means that if 100 star photons hit the front surface of the pixel about 20% or more are reflected away before entering the substrate. 
Do not use color CCD's to do black and white astronomy. They achieve color by coating the top of 3 pixels, one in red, one in green and one in blue filters. So the photonic response to photons is a ratio of the RGB pixel sum. You loose lots of photons when light passes through any optical surface or coating.
Another point to consider in the usage of a Cooled CCD chip is how the frame is read out, how the individual pixels are controlled to read out the image while photons are still hitting the surface?  Various methods of image buildup and image frame readout have been around.  You want to obtain equal integration of all pixels by your photons arriving and no extra photons added during the read out phase.  This means you must have a shutter to control the photons hitting the CCD.  If you plan to do science with your CCD and not just pretty images you must have a rotating leaf shutter mechanisum to open and close the incoming photons that hit the CCD.  Any other aperature shutter or iris shutter or traveling slit shutter like on film cameras for terestial photography will not work for CCD science.  The reason is the other shutters cause the integration time of pixels at one end of the CCD to be longer than the other end. So you induce a bias in the image you can not easialy take out.
Here is a SBIG ST7 rotating leaf type shutter on there CCD camera.



  1. Proceedings of SPIE, Volume 570, Solid State Imaging Arrays, August 22-23, 1985, San Diego, California.


  1. Handbook of CCD Astronomy,  S. B. Howell, Cambridge University Press, 2000, ISBN 0 521 64834 3 paperback


  1. Handbook of Optics,  OSA, Walter G. Driscoll, Mcgraw Hill Book Company, 1978, ISBN 0-07-047710-8 hardcover


  1. CCD Astronomy, Christian Buil, Willmann-Bell Inc., 1991, ISBN 0-943396-29-8


  1. A Practical Guide to CCD Astronomy, Patrick Martinez and Alain Klotz, Cambridge University Press, 1998, ISBN 0-52159-950-4, paper back


  1. Astronomical Techniques, W. A. Hiltner, The University of Chicago Press, 1960, Volume 2, Stars and Stellar Systems, library of congress 62-9113


  1. Practical Amateur Spectroscopy, Stephen F. Tonkin (Ed.), Springer-Verlag, 2002, Patrick Moore’s Series ISBN 1-8523-3489-4


  1. Swinburne Astronomy Online, "An Introduction to Astrophotography and CCD Imaging", CD, 2002


  1. Teare, S.W. and Kenyon, D.A., "Practical Astronomical Photometry", 2001, IAPPP Western Wing, Inc.


  1. AutoStar CCD Photometry, J L Hopkins, G A Lucas, NiteOwl  Astrophysics Observatory, Phoenix, Arizona, 2007, for the booklet, 25$.

From where-ever I copy an image or text description off the internet I will include the URL path.
Other paths that can not be indexed i will add here:
    1. Full Well CCD chip Linearity check. See this site for help.

Publications of Interest


1.      Hawkins, R.L. 1993, "Photometry with CCDs at the Undergraduate Level --- The KNAC Experience" in Poster Papers on Stellar Photometry, Proc. of IAU Coll. 136, ed. Elliott, I. and Butler, C.J. (Dublin:Institute for Advanced Studies) pp. 130-132

2.      Hawkins, R.L. 1991, "Some Common Problems Encountered with CCDs and How to Avoid Them", B.A.A.S. 23, 1397.

Organizations and Meetings on Photometry




  1. IAPPP,
  2. RTMC,
  3. PATS, Pacific Astronomy & Telescope Show, September 13-14,2008. This is the first meeting.





1.      Sky and Telescope,, $6 and issue, 12 issues a year.


2.      Astronomy,, $7 per issue, 12 issues a year.

3.      Astronomy Technology Today,, $4 an issue, 4 times a year

4.      Ciel et Espace Magazine, French Astronomy,