5509 This year was
the starting point for the apo
ktiseos kosmou (AKK) or anno mundi (AM) chronological
commonly employed by East Roman (Byzantine) scholars from about the
century. In this system, then, 1 A.D. corresponds to the year of
the world 5509/5510. 2001 A.D. is thus 7509/7510, 7509 through 31
August and 7510 thereafter, since the East Roman year began with 1
(A variant system, known as the Alexandrian era and attributed to the
century monk Panodorus, began on August 29, 5493 B.C.)
5199 In the
Anno Mundi chronological system attributed
to Eusebius and common in the West before the adoption of the Anno
system, this year was the starting point.
4004 The year
of the creation according to Bishop Ussher
(1581-1656), an Anglo-Irish (Protestant) priest.
Olympic games held. (Important for dating
753 The year of
the founding of Rome. Used in the
A.U.C. (Anno Urbis Conditae) system. 754 A.U.C. = 1 A.D.
Roman year began with the Kalends of March (1 March).
Return of Jewish exiles under Sheshbazzar, with Zerubabbel
(grandson of Jehoiachin, the last of David's ancestors to enjoy
power) and Jeshua (Ezra 2.2).
Rebuilding of the temple begun (Ezra 3.8).
Rebuilding of the temple reinitiated under during
Darius' second year (Ezra 4.24).
Temple completed in Darius' sixth year (Ezra 6.15).
traveled from Babylon to Jerusalem. He
called an assembly - the people separated themselves from their foreign
wives (Ezra 10).
Nehemiah travels to Jerusalem as governor and oversees
the reconstruction of the city's wall (Nehemiah 6.15). Ezra read
the Law aloud to the people near the Water Gate (Neh. 8.3).
250 The Septuagint
translation of the Torah accomplished in Alexandria, Egypt, about this
time under Ptolemy Philadelphus.
The Maccabean revolt, led by Mattathias.
Judea became independent of the Seleucids. The Hasmonean dynasty
The fall of Israel to Shalmanesser V and
Sargon II of Assyria.
Jerusalem destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar's forces after
a two year siege.
(559-530) captured Babylon in October.
Soon thereafter, he proclaimed that the temple in Jerusalem should be
About 50,000 Jews returned.
Darius I (522-486) king of Persia.
and Zechariah began preaching
around this year.
of Xerxes (486-465), king of Persia.
of Artaxerxes (465-424), king of Persia.
Artaxerxes' command to rebuild Jerusalem's walls (Neh.
2.4-8). Many begin Daniel's prophecy of the seventy weeks from
date (Dan. 9.25).
likely written when Nehemiah briefly
returned to Persia during this year and the people again disregarded
Alexander the Great conquered Palestine.
of Palestine transferred from the Ptolemies (Egypt)
to the Seleucids (Syria).
Antioches Epiphanes (175-164) came to power as Seleucid
ruler of Palestine. He attempted to Hellenize the Jews.
conquered Jerusalem for Rome.
assassinated, 15 March.
(Caesar’s nephew, later known as Augustus),
Mark Antony, and Leupidus rule Rome as a triumvirate.
42 The Senate
recognized Julius Caesar as a god.
37 Herod the
Great (ruled 37-4? BC) became king of Judea,
appointed by the senate of Rome.
30 In August,
Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide in
Alexandria after their defeat by Octavian’s forces. In spite of
fact that Herod had backed Antony, Octavian confirmed him as king of
began on the Herod’s temple in Jerusalem.
calendar adopted in Asia Minor. There,
the civil year began on 23 September, IX Kalendarum Octobris, Augustus’