Agreement in Meaning Between the New Testament Quotations and the Hebrew Old Testament

As for the Septuagint comparison, this analysis relies on the Table of Quotations in New Testament Order. That table contains a column entitled "Meaning"  with annotations:   "J," "H" or "D."  A "J" indicates that the quotation agrees with the Septuagint against the sense of the Masoretic text, an "H" that the quotation supports the Hebrew sense against the Septuagint.  The quotation is marked by a "D" when the quotation disagrees in meaning with both the Septuagint and the Hebrew.  The following table summarizes the disagreement of the New Testament with the Hebrew Old Testament as a source.  For each New Testament book, the number of quotations from each Old Testament book is shown, but the number of times the New Testament reading differs in meaning from the Hebrew Old Testament text - both "J" and "D" readings - is also indicated.  Thus, Matthew differs in sense from the Masoretic text 16 times out of 54 quotations.  Nine of these disagreements occur when Matthew quotes from Isaiah.  Looking along the rows, note that Deuteronomy is quoted against the sense of the Masoretic text 13 times, 2 of these quotations occurring in the book of Romans.
 

Book
# of
quot.
Mt
Mk
Lk
Jn
Acts
Rom
1 Cor
2 Cor
Gal
Eph
1 Tm
2 Tm
Heb
Jam 
1 Pet
2 Pet
Total 
101.5/320
16/54
4/27
5/26
4/14
10/40
25.5/61
5/17
2/10
4/10
0/5
0/1
1/1
17/37
1/4
7/12
0/1
Genesis
4/31
0/2
0/2
-
-
0/4
1/9
0/2
-
1/4
0/1
-
-
2/6
0/1
-
-
Exodus
2/31.33
0/4.33
0/3
0/2.5
0/0.5
1/11
0/3
0/1
0/1
-
0/0.5
-
-
0/3
0/0.5
1/1
-
Leviticus
0/15.83
0/3.83
0/2
0/2
-
0/1
0/2
-
0/0.5
0/2
-
-
-
-
0/1
0/1
-
Numbers
1/2
0/0.5
-
-
0/0.5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1/1
-
-
-
-
Deut.
13/43.33
2/10.3
2/6.5
2/5.5
-
0/3
2/7
1/2
0/1
2/2
0/0.5
0/1
-
2/4
0/0.5
-
-
1 Samuel
0/1
-
-
-
-
0/1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2 Samuel
0/2.5
-
-
-
-
-
0/0.5
-
0/1
-
-
-
-
0/1
-
-
-
1 Kings
0/2
-
-
-
-
-
0/2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Job
0/2
-
-
-
-
-
0/1
0/1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Psalms
20/76.5
1/9
0/5
0/7
1/7
2/11
7/12.5
0/3
1/2
-
0/2
-
-
8/16
-
0/2
-
Proverbs
5/6
-
-
-
-
-
1/1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1/1
1/1
2/2
0/1
Isaiah
43.5/65.5
9/11
2/4.5
3/6
3/4
3/5
13.5/18
3/6
1/2
1/1
-
-
-
1/2
-
4/6
-
Book
# of 
quot.
Mt
Mk
Lk
Jn
Acts
Rom
1 Cor
2 Cor
Gal
Eph
1 Tm
2 Tm
Heb
Jam 
1 Pet
2 Pet
Jeremiah
2/5
0/1
-
-
-
-
-
0/1
0/1
-
-
-
-
2/2
-
-
-
Ezekiel
0/1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0/1.5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Daniel
0/5
0/2
0/2
0/1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Hosea
4/7
2/3
-
0/1
-
-
1/2
1/1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Joel
1/2
-
-
-
-
1/1
0/1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Amos
2/2
-
-
-
-
2/2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Jonah
0/1
0/1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Micah
1/2
1/2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Habakkuk
2/4
-
-
-
-
1/1
0/1
-
-
0/1
-
-
-
1/1
-
-
-
Haggai
0/1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0/1
-
-
-
Zechariah
1/7
1/3
0/1
-
0/2
-
-
-
-
-
0/1
-
-
-
-
-
-
Malachi
0/4
0/1
0/1
0/1
-
-
0/1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

Instances where the New Testament Differs in Meaning from the Masoretic Text

The following two tables summarize these results, providing percentage agreement for each Old Testament and New Testament book.  For instance, Zechariah is quoted 7 times, 6 of which are in agreement with the meaning of the Masoretic text.  Thus, the New Testament follows the Hebrew version of Zechariah 85.7% of the time.  Similarly, Luke follows the Masoretic reading in 21 of 26 passages, for a percentage agreement = 80.1%.
 
Genesis
87.1
Exodus
92.6
Leviticus
100
Numbers
50
Deuteronomy
70.0
1 Samuel
100
2 Samuel
100
1 Kings
100
Job
100
Psalms
73.9
Proverbs
16.7
Isaiah
33.6
Jeremiah
60
Ezekiel
100
Daniel
100
Hosea
42.9
Joel
50
Amos
0
Jonah
100
Micah
50
Habakkuk
50
Haggai
100
Zechariah
85.7
Malachi
100
Total
68.3

Percentage Agree-
ment by Old Testament Book 

Although the agreement between the New Testament and the Septuagint was seen to be lowest in the gospels, the Masoretic text fared even more poorly here.  Proceeding as before, we find the following for natural New Testament groupings:

Synoptic gospels - 76.6
John                       - 71.4
Acts                       - 75.0
Pauline epistles    - 65.2
Hebrews                - 54.1
Catholic epistles  - 52.9

Luke's quotations agree in meaning with the Masoretic text 77.3% of the time.  It appears, then, that agreement with the Masoretic text is best in the gospels, and considerably worse in Paul's writings and the other epistles.

The most remarkable number in the table at the left is the agreement percentage for the book of Isaiah, only 33.6%.  Other important books - Psalms and Deuteronomy - also show strong divergence from the Masoretic text.  But the New Testament's tendency to disagree with Isaiah is striking. 

 
Matthew
70.4
Mark
85.2
Luke
80.1
John
71.4
Acts
75.0
Romans
58.2
1 Cor
70.6
2 Cor
80.0
Galatians
60.0
Ephesians
100
1 Timothy
100
2 Timothy
0
Hebrews
54.1
James
75.0
1 Peter
41.7
2 Peter
100
Total
68.3
Percentage Agreement
by New Testament Book