PPC's post-graduate training program is accredited
by the American Psychoanalytic Association. Below is a general overview of our program; for more information, please contact PPC.
The Pittsburgh Psychoanalytic
Center and the American Psychoanalytic Association recognize four types of applicants
with professional credentials required for admission to training:
1. Medical or clinical doctorate applicants
Individuals are eligible to apply if they 1.) have
graduated from an accredited U.S. or foreign medical school
or from an equivalent in a foreign country, 2.) are
licensed to practice medicine in Pennsylvania, and 3.) are licensed and have
completed at least two years of a psychiatric residency at an accredited program.
Individuals are also eligible
if they hold a Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology, Ed.D., or a Psy.D., a Doctor of
Mental Health, a D.S.W. or Ph.D. in Social Work, or MSW.
2. Non-medical clinical
applicants without doctorates and those with other clinical doctorates
Individuals are eligible
if they are recognized clinicians in the mental health community with significant psychotherapy experience. Individuals qualifying for admission for clinical training the Institute would need to obtain a waiver
from the Committee on Preparedness and Progress (COPAP) of the American Psychoanalytic Institute.
3. Research or academic
Applicants who are research or academic scholars with either a medical or non-medical
background may apply for limited training that does not include supervised clinical work.
Research or academic applicants can also request clinical psychoanalytic training.
If so, and if the Admissions and Education Committees find that an applicant has the necessary aptitudes and qualifications,
a waiver will be requested from the Committee on Research and Special Training (CORST) of the American Psychoanalytic Association. Such a request for waiver will be submitted after a Candidate has demonstrated proficiency
in the programs of the Institute, and aptitude for clinical work.
4. Transfer applicants
Candidates in good standing
in any training facility recognized by the American or International Psychoanalytic Associations may apply for transfer to
the PPC. Transfer Center Candidates follow the same procedures as other applicants,
and in addition, arrange to have their credentials forwarded to the PPC. A summary of educational and training experience should be included.
Applicants may be of any
age, gender, race, national origin, ethnicity, religion, and sexual orientation. The
practice of psychoanalysis requires integrity of character, maturity, and an aptitude for psychological work. Individuals will need to demonstrate a professional identity as an empathetic caretaker and possess sufficient
clinical aptitude for in-depth psychological work.
To obtain an application
form for training, please call the PPC Office at 412-661-4224. The office is
open from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Monday through Thursday, and applications are accepted at any time during the year. Please contact the Chair of the Education Committee if you would like more information
about admission for psychoanalytic training.
Once applications are received,
the Chair of the Admissions Committee contacts applicants to review the admissions evaluation process. This generally takes from two to three months, and the Chair of the Education Committee will then assign
an advisor to help guide applicants through the process.
The admission process includes
interviews by at least two members of the Faculty or the Admissions Committee. Each
interviewer submits a written report, which is then discussed by all members of the Admissions Committee. There is at least one clinical presentation by the applicant of recent clinical work. This includes a two page summary of a case, and process material from a session.
The Admissions Committee
meets periodically during the year to recommend application decisions to the Education Committee. Applicants are immediately informed of the Education Committee’s decision by the Chair of the Education
Committee. If an application is not accepted, the Chair of the Education Committee
and the corresponding Admissions Advisor explain the basis of the decision. An
appeal process is available to those who request it.
The Candidate Organization
All Candidates are welcome
and encouraged to participate in the Pittsburgh Psychoanalytic Center Candidates’ Organization, a group that functions
autonomously and has several purposes. The organization provides a forum for
Candidates to discuss common concerns related to the demands of training, and it provides an opportunity for Candidate participation
on PPC committees. It also provides a channel to the Center’s administration
to offer feedback about the program and ideas for its improvement.
The Candidates’ Organization
elects a delegate and an alternate to the Affiliate Council of the American Psychoanalytic Association. They, in turn, keep the members informed on matters affecting Candidates nationally. Finally, the Organization sponsors social gatherings and other activities supportive of Candidates during
the training process.
Candidates who are participating
in coursework may become Affiliate Members of the American Psychoanalytic Association.
The Bertram D. Lewin
The Bertram D. Lewin Library
is housed and maintained by the Pittsburgh Psychoanalytic Center. While the Library
contains the primary books and periodicals relevant to Center coursework, various university and medical libraries are located
nearby for additional materials. PPC candidates and faculty also have access to an online
database of psychoanalytic materials called PEP (Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing) Web.
While admission implies
an initial judgment by the Faculty that newly-enrolled Candidates will ultimately have a successful career as a psychoanalyst,
acceptance is not a guarantee that all Candidates will graduate. During training,
Candidates may not represent themselves as psychoanalysts without the authorization of the Education Committee.
EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM
The education and training
program consists of three parts: training analysis, courses of instruction in the psychoanalysis of adults and, if qualified and
desired, the psychoanalysis of children and adolescents, and supervised
Once accepted into the program,
Candidates are asked to contact the Chair of the Education Committee to discuss the personal analysis, individual courses
of study, and the selection of a faculty advisor.
Candidates may be asked
to supplement clinical experience before beginning coursework. A significant
prior analysis with a member of the American Psychoanalytic Association, or at least six months with a Training Analyst of
the PPC is expected before beginning first year courses. Eligibility for first
year courses is determined by the Education Committee.
In each phase of the program,
coursework is evaluated by the Education Committee as often as may be useful. In
addition, every Candidate has a faculty advisor, who serves as an important resource to discuss academic experiences, general
performance and possible impediments to progress. Also, the Candidate may select
a mentor, or advanced Candidate or Faculty Member to support and advise his/her analytic training and suggestions in related
The Training Psychoanalysis
The personal analysis is
a therapeutic procedure that enables Candidates to overcome intra-psychic obstacles that might interfere with the development
of analytic competence. The training analysis is an opportunity to experience
firsthand the workings of unconscious forces. Undergoing analysis will also help
to develop the capacity for continued self-analysis during coursework, while conducting supervised analyses, and beyond graduation
when working independently as a psychoanalyst.
For a significant part of
the Candidate’s supervised clinical work, Candidates must be in their training analysis. This analysis is conducted by a Training Analyst of the Pittsburgh Psychoanalytic Center, and personally
selected by the Candidate. The training analysis is confidential, and the Training
Analyst does not report on the progress of the analysis to the PPC. However,
Candidates provide the name of their Training Analyst to the Chair of the Education Committee.
The Candidate also informs the Education Committee Chair of the number of hours of analysis each year and the eventual
The first three years of
coursework consists of required classes focused on the theory and technique of psychoanalysis.
After the fourth year, the curriculum is divided between required and elective segments. Beyond the fifth year of study and until graduation, Candidates continue participation in the Continuous
Case Seminar and take electives of their choosing. Descriptions of courses begin
on page 18. The Education Committee may recommend coursework that a particular
Candidate take a course.
As early as the second year
of instruction, Candidates may add courses from the curriculum on Psychoanalysis of Children and Adolescents. These courses can be chosen as electives with permission of the Child Analysis Committee.
The curriculum is designed
to allow each Candidate room to discover individual talents and interests and expand on them.
Most classes are held on a weekday evening or Saturdays, or at other times at the discretion of instructor and class
members. Tutorials can be scheduled for classes with only one or two students.
In addition to classes,
all Candidates are required to participate in Visiting Analyst seminars, when notable analysts have been invited to conduct
weekend workshops and consultations.
Supervised case work usually
begins during the second half of the first year, contingent on approval of the Education Committee, or a waiver from the American
Psychoanalytic Association. To graduate, Candidates need to analyze a minimum
of three patients (analysands), one of which can be a latency child or adolescent. One
of the analysands must be in the termination phase. Candidates are also required
to take one reduced fee case. Candidates and their supervisors work together
to set patient fees.
Each case must have a different
Supervising Analyst, who cannot also be the Candidate’s Training Analyst. Fifty
or more hours of supervision are generally expected for each case, with one case to be supervised into the termination phase.
Although many supervisory hours are entailed, the main considerations are the
quality, depth, and breadth of analytic experience the candidate gains with various kinds of patients.
Patients are seen four or
five times each week, with supervision usually at a frequency of one hour per week at first.
Since analyzing two or more patients at the same time aids learning, a second supervised case should be started as
soon as an analytic process has been established in the first case. To add a
second case, Candidates must receive the support of the first supervisor and the approval of the Education Committee.
Evaluation of Progression
A Candidate's clinical progress
is reviewed every year by his or her supervisor(s) and Faculty Advisor. Every
six months, supervisors and Candidates collaborate on written reports, which are shared with Faculty Advisors and members
of the Education Committee.
Upon the recommendation
of the supervisor of the Candidate’s second supervised case, and prior to the onset of the third supervised analysis,
the Faculty Advisory will arrange for a Third Case Review. During this review,
the Candidate’s two supervisors and the Faculty Advisor meet to discuss the Candidate’s clinical work to date. The purpose of this review is to review and discuss the findings of the supervisors
with that of the Advisor, in order that the Advisor can then provide to the Candidate a summary of the feedback about the
clinical work to date and any recommendations for future successful analytic work.
To graduate, Candidates
must satisfactorily fulfill course requirements, clinical presentations and supervised clinical work, and demonstrate competence
to conduct an analysis without required supervision.
Also required for graduation
is a case report on an analysand that meets the standards for certification by the American Psychoanalytic Association, or
an essay on a psychoanalytic topic demonstrating the ability to think psychoanalytically.
Analysis of Children
An educational program is
available for those wishing to expand their expertise or specialize in the psychoanalysis of children and adolescents. Qualified Candidates in good standing who have completed the first year of study,
and graduates of other Institutes of the American or International Psychoanalytic Association are eligible to apply for admission
to the Pittsburgh Psychoanalytic Center Child and Adolescent Program.
The Child Analytic Program
includes the study of normal development in infants, young children, and adolescents, as well as the assessment and diagnosis
of childhood disorders. Courses in the theory and technique of child analysis,
participation in clinical conferences, and study of pertinent literature are also required, as are the prerequisite child
and adolescent development courses in the general program.
Continuous Case Seminars
examine analysis of children during various phases of development. Child analytic
courses extend over a minimum three-year period, and Candidates must attend the Faculty-Associate Study Group until graduation. Participation in both the general and child programs concurrently is encouraged.
One, and preferably two,
adults established in psychoanalytic treatment are the prerequisites before beginning supervised child analysis. If possible, supervised analysis of a child should be undertaken during the second year of coursework in
the child program. The analyses of three children, one an adolescent, at a frequency
of four or more times a week are required for graduation. One case must be supervised
weekly for the first year, then less often at the discretion of the Candidate’s supervisor. Second and third cases are supervised as determined between the child analyst and the supervising analyst;
one case, however, must be supervised through its termination phase.
in adult analysis and in two supervised child cases, supports permission to undertake an unsupervised child case by the Education
To graduate as a child analyst,
Candidates must have completed all required coursework and sufficient supervised clinical work to demonstrate competence in
conducting the psychoanalysis of children without required supervision. Graduation
from the child analytic program can be simultaneous with graduation from the general program, but not precede it.
Candidates in the
Faculty and Candidates may
participate in child analysis courses as electives, with the permission of the Chair of the Child Analysis Program or his/her
designee. Prior experience in working with children and/or adolescents is strongly
recommended. A child or an adolescent may be selected as a third or subsequent
case in fulfilling general program graduation requirements after review and with permission from both the Child Faculty and
the Education Committee.
110: Psychoanalytic Theory: Core Concepts
Preceded by assigned summer
readings, this course includes a survey of basic psychoanalytic concepts: the
dynamic unconscious; conflict; repression and defense affects; the genetic viewpoint; interpretation of dreams; psychopathology
including symptom formation, character formation and traits, obsessional neurosis and narcissism. We look at the historic context and intellectual atmosphere in which topographic theory developed, including
the deficiencies Freud discovered which led to the development of structural theory.
120: Theory of Technique: Psychoanalysis and Analyzability
An introduction to the literature
of technique and the concept of analyzability. Readings range from Freud's papers
on technique to current writers. Techniques of consultation, diagnostic evaluation,
and choice of therapeutic recommendations are included, so that analyzability can be appraised and, if necessary, other forms
of therapy conducted with possible conversion to psychoanalysis. Clinical material
is presented by both Instructor and Candidates.
130: Psychoanalytic Theory of Human Development
This course is organized
to help Candidates acquire a working knowledge of normal child and adult development in terms of psychosexual stages, the
development of object relations, and the development of psychic structure. Emphasis
is on appreciation and resolutions of childhood events, trauma and relationships.
210: Psychoanalytic Theory: Mechanisms of Defense and Problems of Adaptation
The development of structural
theory and ego psychology will be examined, as well as the elements of conflict, defense and adaptation. In an attempt to understand how psychopathology develops, we will study the interaction between constitutional
givens, the forces of maturation and environmental influences. The choice of
symptom formation, defense mechanisms, and the role of trauma and anxiety will be studied and illustrated clinically.
220: Technique of Psychoanalysis
A study of the psychoanalytic
situation and process, including the
nature of psychoanalytic
change. This course examines psychic conflict,
resistance and defense,
transference neurosis and acting out. Special attention
is paid to the analyst's
tasks, including silence and reconstruction, the use of
dreams and the analysis
of slips and behavior particularly in the early stages of.
220C: Theory and Technique: Child Analysis
This course covers the clinical
principles and theories of psychoanalysis as they are best used in work with children.
Emphasis is on understanding the analytic process and exploring those technical elements that advance the process and
those that interfere with its development. Also discussed are patient selection,
preparation of the patient and his/her family, establishment and maintenance of a therapeutic alliance and issues of parental
contact. Required for Child Program.
230: Human Development II
The core of basic normal
development is now related to the development of psychopathology, symptomatology, the neuroses, psychosis, and character disorders
as seen in adult patients.
230C: Observation and Assessment
This course is required
in the child analysis program. Candidates observe normal children on videotapes
and through observation at nursery schools, and prepare written reports for discussion.
This requirement may be waived for Candidates with wide experience in the observation of children. Required for Child Program.
241/ 241C: Continuous Case Seminar
Material from the opening
phase of an analytic case is presented by a Candidate, using process notes. Presenters
may choose to use material no longer current, thus avoiding possible conflicts with active supervision, but still benefiting
from the review and input of peers and Instructors. Group discussions include
the dynamic transference and other technical issues. Papers on the theory of
psychoanalytic technique are referred to or assigned as appropriate. Required
for Child Program.
310: Techniques of Psychoanalysis
A number of fundamental
issues are covered in this course: the beginning of psychoanalysis; resistance;
transference; masochistic transference; interpretation; reconstruction; working through; and the analyst's response to transference
and countertransference. Also studied are the technical problems in borderline
states and severe regressions, as well as in psychotic transferences. Theoretical
and clinical aspects of handling of the termination phase are examined, including themes and issues to be expected.
320: Clinical Conference
The focus of this course
is to compare individual psychoanalytic psychotherapy with psychoanalysis. The
evaluation of patients in the beginning, middle, termination and post-termination phases is considered. Dealing with acting out, the analysis of transference and the role of countertransference is discussed. Both Candidates and Faculty present clinical vignettes.
320C: Technique of Child Analysis
Emphasis is on technique
in preschool and latency children with correlation to the theories of object relations, maturation, development, and conflict-based
structure formation. Special problems are discussed using student and instructor
vignettes; these include divorce, drug use, sexual activity and acting out. Required
for Child Program.
322: Theory and Technique: Dream Interpretation
The theory and technique
of dream interpretation in the context of psychoanalysis is studied. Recent contributions
to dream theory are discussed, with emphasis on the relationship of theory to technique, the role of the dream as a form of
communication in code and its relationship to other forms of psychic communications.
Clinical examples are provided by Candidates.
330: Adolescent Psychology
This is a combined theoretical
and clinical course preparing the adult analyst to understand typical developmental issues and conflicts, as well as phase
specific problems, ego ideal formation, identifications and defense organization. The
structural change of early, middle and late adolescence in reaction to both developmental tasks and the process of analyses
are considered. The technical treatment problems of this age group are illustrated
with clinical examples.
331C: Assessment and Diagnoses
The Anna Freud Profile provides
a focus of interviews with parents, sessions with children and psychological testing.
Also included are reality issues which mitigate against analysis, as well as borderline or organic conditions which
make it not the treatment of choice. Required for Child Program.
341: Continuous Case Seminar
Held jointly with 241 unless
the class size warrants separate sessions.
410: Advanced Theory
Normal and pathological
male and female sexuality is covered in this course, including pregnancy, childbirth, orgasm, frigidity, impotence, homosexuality,
and the perversions. Also studied is the internalization of the concept of self,
object relations theory, and the works of Melanie Klein and the English school, as well as recent work on intrapsychic, interactional,
and intersubjective aspects of psychoanalysis. Additional emphasis is placed
on the contributions of structural theories to the problems of psychic structure formation and narcissism, comparing Kernberg
and Kohut and the place of empathy in psychoanalysis.
420: Theory of Technique: A Systematic Approach
420C: Psychopathology of Childhood: Its Reverberations Through the Life
Using literature on psychopathology,
this course considers problems of nosology, analyzability, and follow-up reports - re-analysis - of children previously analyzed.
Required for Child Program.
441: Continuous Case
This seminar parallels 241
and 341, but includes all advanced Candidates. An effort is made to present material
from the termination phase of an analysis.
441C: Continuous Case
This seminar is combined
with 241C and 341C unless the needs of Candidates necessitate separate presentations.
Required for Child Program.
460C: Literature Seminar
Unexplored topics of interest
to Candidates and Faculty are assigned and discussed in this seminar. Required
for Child Program.
541: Continuous Case
Held with 441 and 641.
641: Continuous Case Seminar
Held with 441 and 541.
Seventh year and beyond
programs are designed by individual Candidates in consultation with a Faculty
Advisor. Individual programs have included seminars, symposia, study groups,
tutorials, visiting analyst programs, consultations and meetings of the American Psychoanalytic Association.
All Candidates may take
electives after completing three years of satisfactory coursework. Electives
may fulfill part of the session requirements for fourth and fifth year Candidates, as well as graduation requirements for
advanced Candidates. These courses vary from year to year according to the interests
and needs of Candidates and Faculty. A selection of recent offerings follows.
Analytic Approaches to
Child Analysis Study Group
Exploration of Analytic
Technique Used for Helping Analysands with Parenting Problems
The Innocence of Dreams
Human Sexuality and the Perversions
The Subject of Addiction
Psychoanalysis and Administration
Perspectives on Psychoanalytic
Psychoanalysis and Culture
Technology and Psychoanalysis
Perspectives on Psychoanalytic Learning
Lesser Known Works of
Supervisory Process: Psychoanalytic Aspects
The Psychoanalytic History of Hysteria
The Termination Phase of Analytic Treatment
Meetings of the American
Psychoanalytic Association, tutorials, and special projects by arrangement.
FEES AND CHARGES (subject to change)
Application fee for all
Annual Registration: $250.00
Late Registration $300.00
Leave of Absence $330.00
Years 1 - 5: $2,630.00
Years 6 and up: $1,430.00
General & Child Program
Years 1 - 5: $2,830.00
Years 6 and up: $1,630.00
Child Program (General Program graduates):$1,430.00
Fees for personal training
analysis and for supervision of clinical work are arranged individually with training analysts and paid directly to them.